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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 12978-12993; doi:10.3390/ijms140712978
Article

Achillea millefolium L. Essential Oil Inhibits LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

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Received: 18 March 2013; in revised form: 30 May 2013 / Accepted: 7 June 2013 / Published: 24 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Abstract: Achillea millefolium L. is a member of the Asteraceae family and has been used in folk medicine in many countries. In this study, 19 compounds in A. millefolium essential oil (AM-EO) have been identified; the major components are artemisia ketone (14.92%), camphor (11.64%), linalyl acetate (11.51%) and 1,8-cineole (10.15%). AM-EO can suppress the inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, including decreased levels of cellular nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion production, lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) concentration. This antioxidant activity is not a result of increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, but rather occurs as a result of the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, thus reducing the inflammatory response. Therefore, AM-EO can be utilized in many applications, including the treatment of inflammatory diseases in the future.
Keywords: Achillea millefolium L.; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; essential oil; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS); lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages Achillea millefolium L.; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; essential oil; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS); lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chou, S.-T.; Peng, H.-Y.; Hsu, J.-C.; Lin, C.-C.; Shih, Y. Achillea millefolium L. Essential Oil Inhibits LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Macrophages. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 12978-12993.

AMA Style

Chou S-T, Peng H-Y, Hsu J-C, Lin C-C, Shih Y. Achillea millefolium L. Essential Oil Inhibits LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Macrophages. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):12978-12993.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chou, Su-Tze; Peng, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Jaw-Cherng; Lin, Chih-Chien; Shih, Ying. 2013. "Achillea millefolium L. Essential Oil Inhibits LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Macrophages." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 12978-12993.


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