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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(6), 12533-12549; doi:10.3390/ijms140612533
Article

Metabolomic-Based Study of the Leafy Gall, the Ecological Niche of the Phytopathogen Rhodococcus fascians, as a Potential Source of Bioactive Compounds

1,* , 2
,
1
,
2
 and
3
1 Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Université Libre de Bruxelles, CP 205/1, Boulevard du Triomphe, Brussels B-1050, Belgium 2 Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 12 rue des Professeurs Jeener et Brachet, Gosselies B-6041, Belgium 3 Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Bromatology and Human Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmacy, Université Libre de Bruxelles, CP 205/9, Boulevard du Triomphe, Brussels B-1050, Belgium
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 April 2013 / Revised: 21 May 2013 / Accepted: 4 June 2013 / Published: 14 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Plant Secondary Metabolism)
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Abstract

Leafy gall is a plant hyperplasia induced upon Rhodococcus fascians infection. Previously, by genomic and transcriptomic analysis, it has been reported that, at the early stage of symptom development, both primary and secondary metabolisms are modified. The present study is based on the hypothesis that fully developed leafy gall, could represent a potential source of new bioactive compounds. Therefore, non-targeted metabolomic analysis of aqueous and chloroform extracts of leafy gall and non-infected tobacco was carried out by 1H-NMR coupled to principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projections to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Polar metabolite profiling reflects modifications mainly in the primary metabolites and in some polyphenolics. In contrast, main modifications occurring in non-polar metabolites concern secondary metabolites, and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) evidenced alterations in diterpenoids family. Analysis of crude extracts of leafy galls and non-infected tobacco leaves exhibited a distinct antiproliferative activity against all four tested human cancer cell lines. A bio-guided fractionation of chloroformic crude extract yield to semi-purified fractions, which inhibited proliferation of glioblastoma U373 cells with IC50 between 14.0 and 2.4 µg/mL. Discussion is focused on the consequence of these metabolic changes, with respect to plant defense mechanisms following infection. Considering the promising role of diterpenoid family as bioactive compounds, leafy gall may rather be a propitious source for drug discovery.
Keywords: metabolomics; tobacco; multivariate data analysis; diterpenoids; leafy gall; Rhodococcus fascians metabolomics; tobacco; multivariate data analysis; diterpenoids; leafy gall; Rhodococcus fascians
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Nacoulma, A.P.; Vandeputte, O.M.; De Lorenzi, M.; El Jaziri, M.; Duez, P. Metabolomic-Based Study of the Leafy Gall, the Ecological Niche of the Phytopathogen Rhodococcus fascians, as a Potential Source of Bioactive Compounds. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 12533-12549.

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