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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(6), 12107-12122; doi:10.3390/ijms140612107
Article

Eviprostat Activates cAMP Signaling Pathway and Suppresses Bladder Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

1,2,3,* , 2,* , 2
, 3
, 4
, 2
 and 3
Received: 15 April 2013; in revised form: 7 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 6 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract: Eviprostat is a popular phytotherapeutic agent for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). At present, the signaling mechanisms underlying its therapeutic effects are still poorly understood. Given that cAMP has been reported to suppress cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy in various pathological situations, we asked whether the effect of Eviprostat could be ascribed to the activation of the cAMP signaling pathway. In the study, exposure of cAMP response element (CRE)-secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) (CRE-SEAP)-reporter cells to Eviprostat elevated SEAP secretion, which was associated with an increased phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), as well as enhanced expression of CRE-regulated protein connexin43, indicating an activation of the cAMP signaling pathway. Consistent with these observations, Eviprostat-induced expression of Cx43 was abolished in the presence of adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 or PKA inhibitor H89, whereas it was mimicked by adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin. Further analysis demonstrated that Eviprostat significantly potentiated the effect of phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibitor, but not that of PDE4 inhibitor, on CRE activation. Moreover, Eviprostat suppressed PDGF-induced activation of ERK and Akt and inhibited cell proliferation and hillock formation in both mesangial cells and bladder smooth muscle cells. Collectively, activation of the cAMP signaling pathway could be an important mechanism by which Eviprostat exerts its therapeutic effects for LUTS.
Keywords: Eviprostat; cAMP signaling; PDGF; cell proliferation; mesangial cells Eviprostat; cAMP signaling; PDGF; cell proliferation; mesangial cells
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, K.; Yao, J.; Chi, Y.; Sawada, N.; Araki, I.; Kitamura, M.; Takeda, M. Eviprostat Activates cAMP Signaling Pathway and Suppresses Bladder Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 12107-12122.

AMA Style

Li K, Yao J, Chi Y, Sawada N, Araki I, Kitamura M, Takeda M. Eviprostat Activates cAMP Signaling Pathway and Suppresses Bladder Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(6):12107-12122.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Kai; Yao, Jian; Chi, Yuan; Sawada, Norifumi; Araki, Isao; Kitamura, Masanori; Takeda, Masayuki. 2013. "Eviprostat Activates cAMP Signaling Pathway and Suppresses Bladder Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 6: 12107-12122.


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