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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(6), 10926-10943; doi:10.3390/ijms140610926
Article

Mechanisms by Which Licochalcone E Exhibits Potent Anti-Inflammatory Properties: Studies with Phorbol Ester-Treated Mouse Skin and Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Murine Macrophages

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Received: 29 March 2013; in revised form: 15 May 2013 / Accepted: 15 May 2013 / Published: 24 May 2013
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Abstract: In this study we found that licochalcone E (LicE), a recently isolated retrochalcone from Glycyrrhiza inflata, exhibits potent anti-inflammatory effects in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage models. Topical application of LicE (0.5–2 mg) effectively inhibited TPA-induced (1) ear edema formation; (2) phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), c-Jun, and extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2; and (3) expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 proteins in mouse skin. The treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with LicE (2.5–7.5 μmol/L) induced a profound reduction in LPS-induced (1) release of NO and prostaglandin E2; (2) mRNA expression and secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α; (3) promoter activity of iNOS and COX-2 and expression of their corresponding mRNAs and proteins; (4) activation of AKT, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), SAPK/JNK and c-Jun; (5) phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB (IκB) kinase-αβ and IκBα, degradation of IκBα, translocation of p65 (RelA) to the nucleus and transcriptional activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB; and (6) transcriptional activity of activator protein (AP)-1. These results indicate that the LicE inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 transcriptional activity through the inhibition of AKT and MAPK activation contributes to decreases in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the inducible enzymes iNOS and COX-2.
Keywords: licochalcone E; inflammation; mouse skin licochalcone E; inflammation; mouse skin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, H.N.; Cho, H.J.; Lim, D.Y.; Kang, Y.-H.; Lee, K.W.; Park, J.H.Y. Mechanisms by Which Licochalcone E Exhibits Potent Anti-Inflammatory Properties: Studies with Phorbol Ester-Treated Mouse Skin and Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Murine Macrophages. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 10926-10943.

AMA Style

Lee HN, Cho HJ, Lim DY, Kang Y-H, Lee KW, Park JHY. Mechanisms by Which Licochalcone E Exhibits Potent Anti-Inflammatory Properties: Studies with Phorbol Ester-Treated Mouse Skin and Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Murine Macrophages. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(6):10926-10943.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Han N.; Cho, Han J.; Lim, Do Y.; Kang, Young-Hee; Lee, Ki W.; Park, Jung H.Y. 2013. "Mechanisms by Which Licochalcone E Exhibits Potent Anti-Inflammatory Properties: Studies with Phorbol Ester-Treated Mouse Skin and Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Murine Macrophages." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 6: 10926-10943.


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