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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 7273-7285; doi:10.3390/ijms14047273
Article

Digoxin Downregulates NDRG1 and VEGF through the Inhibition of HIF-1α under Hypoxic Conditions in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells

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Received: 4 January 2013; in revised form: 11 March 2013 / Accepted: 22 March 2013 / Published: 2 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology)
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Abstract: Digoxin, an inhibitor of Na+/K+ ATPase, has been used in the treatment of heart-related diseases (such as congestive heart failure and atrial arrhythmia) for decades. Recently, it was reported that digoxin is also an effective HIF-1α inhibitor. We investigated whether digoxin could suppress tumor cell growth through HIF-1α in non-small cell lung cancer cells (A549 cells) under hypoxic conditions. An MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. RT-PCR and western blotting were performed to analyze the mRNA and protein expression of VEGF, NDRG1, and HIF-1α. HIF-1α nuclear translocation was then determined by EMSA. Digoxin was found to inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells under hypoxic conditions. Our results showed that hypoxia led to the upregulation of VEGF, NDRG1, and HIF-1α both at the mRNA and protein levels. We also found that the hypoxia-induced overexpression of VEGF, NDRG1, and HIF-1α was suppressed by digoxin in a concentration-dependent manner. As expected, our EMSA results demonstrated that under hypoxic conditions HIF-1α nuclear translocation was also markedly reduced by digoxin in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results suggest that digoxin downregulated hypoxia-induced overexpression of VEGF and NDRG1 at the transcriptional level probably through the inhibition of HIF-1α synthesis in A549 cells.
Keywords: digoxin (DGX); A549 cells; hypoxia; VEGF; NDRG1; HIF-1α digoxin (DGX); A549 cells; hypoxia; VEGF; NDRG1; HIF-1α
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wei, D.; Peng, J.-J.; Gao, H.; Li, H.; Li, D.; Tan, Y.; Zhang, T. Digoxin Downregulates NDRG1 and VEGF through the Inhibition of HIF-1α under Hypoxic Conditions in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 7273-7285.

AMA Style

Wei D, Peng J-J, Gao H, Li H, Li D, Tan Y, Zhang T. Digoxin Downregulates NDRG1 and VEGF through the Inhibition of HIF-1α under Hypoxic Conditions in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(4):7273-7285.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wei, Dong; Peng, Jing-Jing; Gao, Hui; Li, Hua; Li, Dong; Tan, Yong; Zhang, Tao. 2013. "Digoxin Downregulates NDRG1 and VEGF through the Inhibition of HIF-1α under Hypoxic Conditions in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 4: 7273-7285.


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