Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(3), 5978-5997; doi:10.3390/ijms14035978
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Integration of Multiple Signaling Pathways Determines Differences in the Osteogenic Potential and Tissue Regeneration of Neural Crest-Derived and Mesoderm-Derived Calvarial Bones

1 Hagey Laboratory for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Department of Surgery, Stanford University, School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA 2 Department of Advanced Biomedical Science, University of Studies of Naples Federico II, Naples 80131, Italy
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 February 2013; in revised form: 5 March 2013 / Accepted: 12 March 2013 / Published: 15 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signalling Molecules and Signal Transduction in Cells)
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Abstract: The mammalian skull vault, a product of a unique and tightly regulated evolutionary process, in which components of disparate embryonic origin are integrated, is an elegant model with which to study osteoblast biology. Our laboratory has demonstrated that this distinct embryonic origin of frontal and parietal bones confer differences in embryonic and postnatal osteogenic potential and skeletal regenerative capacity, with frontal neural crest derived osteoblasts benefitting from greater osteogenic potential. We outline how this model has been used to elucidate some of the molecular mechanisms which underlie these differences and place these findings into the context of our current understanding of the key, highly conserved, pathways which govern the osteoblast lineage including FGF, BMP, Wnt and TGFβ signaling. Furthermore, we explore recent studies which have provided a tantalizing insight into way these pathways interact, with evidence accumulating for certain transcription factors, such as Runx2, acting as a nexus for cross-talk.
Keywords: neural-crest; paraxial-mesoderm; origin; bone; regeneration; signaling; apoptosis

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MDPI and ACS Style

Senarath-Yapa, K.; Li, S.; Meyer, N.P.; Longaker, M.T.; Quarto, N. Integration of Multiple Signaling Pathways Determines Differences in the Osteogenic Potential and Tissue Regeneration of Neural Crest-Derived and Mesoderm-Derived Calvarial Bones. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 5978-5997.

AMA Style

Senarath-Yapa K, Li S, Meyer NP, Longaker MT, Quarto N. Integration of Multiple Signaling Pathways Determines Differences in the Osteogenic Potential and Tissue Regeneration of Neural Crest-Derived and Mesoderm-Derived Calvarial Bones. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(3):5978-5997.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Li, Shuli; Meyer, Nathaniel P.; Longaker, Michael T.; Quarto, Natalina. 2013. "Integration of Multiple Signaling Pathways Determines Differences in the Osteogenic Potential and Tissue Regeneration of Neural Crest-Derived and Mesoderm-Derived Calvarial Bones." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 3: 5978-5997.

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