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Biodegradation of Di-n-Butyl Phthalate by a Newly Isolated Halotolerant Sphingobium sp.
College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2013; in revised form: 23 November 2013 / Accepted: 29 November 2013 / Published: 10 December 2013
Abstract: A Gram-negative strain (TJ) capable of growing aerobically on mixed phthalate esters (PAEs) as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from the Haihe estuary, Tianjin, China. It was identified as belonging to the Sphingobium genus on the basis of morphological and physiological characteristics and 16S rRNA and gyrb gene sequencing. The batch tests for biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by the Sphingobium sp. TJ showed that the optimum conditions were 30 °C, pH 7.0, and the absence of NaCl. Stain TJ could tolerate up to 4% NaCl in minimal salt medium supplemented with DBP, although the DBP degradation rates slowed as NaCl concentration increased. In addition, substrate tests showed that strain TJ could utilize shorter side-chained PAEs, such as dimethyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate, but could not metabolize long-chained PAEs, such as di-n-octyl phthalate, diisooctyl phthalate, and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the biodegradation characteristics of DBP by a member of the Sphingobium genus.
Keywords: di-n-butyl phthalate; biodegradation; halotolerant; Sphingobium sp.; 16S rRNA gene; gyrb gene
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MDPI and ACS Style
Jin, D.; Kong, X.; Cui, B.; Bai, Z.; Zhang, H. Biodegradation of Di-n-Butyl Phthalate by a Newly Isolated Halotolerant Sphingobium sp.. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 24046-24054.
Jin D, Kong X, Cui B, Bai Z, Zhang H. Biodegradation of Di-n-Butyl Phthalate by a Newly Isolated Halotolerant Sphingobium sp.. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(12):24046-24054.
Jin, Decai; Kong, Xiao; Cui, Bingjian; Bai, Zhihui; Zhang, Hongxun. 2013. "Biodegradation of Di-n-Butyl Phthalate by a Newly Isolated Halotolerant Sphingobium sp.." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 12: 24046-24054.