Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(12), 23492-23498; doi:10.3390/ijms141223492
Review

Verifiable Hypotheses for Thymosin β4-Dependent and -Independent Angiogenic Induction of Trichinella spiralis-Triggered Nurse Cell Formation

1email, 1,2,* email and 3,* email
Received: 28 October 2013; in revised form: 22 November 2013 / Accepted: 22 November 2013 / Published: 29 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Trichinella spiralis has been reported to induce angiogenesis for nutrient supply and waste disposal by the induction of the angiogenic molecule vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) during nurse cell formation. However, the action mechanism to induce VEGF in nurse cells by T. spiralis is not known. Hypoxia in nurse cells was suggested as a possible mechanism; however, the presence of hypoxic conditions in infected muscle or nurse cells and whether hypoxia indeed induces the expression of VEGF and subsequent angiogenesis in the infected muscle are both a matter of debate. Our recent studies have shown that thymosin β4, a potent VEGF inducing protein, is expressed in the very early stages of T. spiralis muscle infection suggesting the induction of VEGF in early stage nurse cells. Nevertheless, we now show that hypoxic conditions were not detected in any nurse cell stage but were detected only in the accumulated inflammatory cells. These studies propose that induction of angiogenesis by VEGF in T. spiralis-infected nurse cells was mediated by thymosin β4 and is unrelated to hypoxic conditions.
Keywords: thymosin β4; Trichinella spiralis; nurse cells; angiogenesis; hypoxia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ock, M.S.; Cha, H.-J.; Choi, Y.H. Verifiable Hypotheses for Thymosin β4-Dependent and -Independent Angiogenic Induction of Trichinella spiralis-Triggered Nurse Cell Formation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 23492-23498.

AMA Style

Ock MS, Cha H-J, Choi YH. Verifiable Hypotheses for Thymosin β4-Dependent and -Independent Angiogenic Induction of Trichinella spiralis-Triggered Nurse Cell Formation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(12):23492-23498.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ock, Mee S.; Cha, Hee-Jae; Choi, Yung H. 2013. "Verifiable Hypotheses for Thymosin β4-Dependent and -Independent Angiogenic Induction of Trichinella spiralis-Triggered Nurse Cell Formation." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 12: 23492-23498.

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