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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 14, Issue 11 (November 2013), Pages 21202-23211

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Open AccessEditorial Editorial on the Special Issue: Regulation by Non-Coding RNAs
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21960-21964; doi:10.3390/ijms141121960
Received: 22 September 2013 / Accepted: 31 October 2013 / Published: 6 November 2013
PDF Full-text (154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This Special Issue of IJMS is devoted to regulation by non-coding RNAs and contains both original research and review articles. An attempt is made to provide an up-to-date analysis of this very fast moving field and cover regulatory roles of both microRNAs and
[...] Read more.
This Special Issue of IJMS is devoted to regulation by non-coding RNAs and contains both original research and review articles. An attempt is made to provide an up-to-date analysis of this very fast moving field and cover regulatory roles of both microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs. Multifaceted functions of these RNAs in normal cellular processes, as well as in disease progression, are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation by non-coding RNAs 2013)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) Method for the Determination of Related Substances of Micafungin Sodium in Drug Substances
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21202-21214; doi:10.3390/ijms141121202
Received: 26 September 2013 / Revised: 15 October 2013 / Accepted: 16 October 2013 / Published: 24 October 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (727 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An isocratic, sensitive and stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for separation and determination of the related substances of micafungin sodium was developed. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm). Forced degradation study
[...] Read more.
An isocratic, sensitive and stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for separation and determination of the related substances of micafungin sodium was developed. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm). Forced degradation study confirmed that the newly developed method was specific and selective to the degradation products. The performance of the method was validated according to the present ICH guidelines for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. Regression analysis showed correlation coefficient value greater than 0.999 for micafungin sodium and its six impurities. Limit of detection of impurities was in the range of 0.006%–0.013% indicating the high sensitivity of the newly developed method. Accuracy of the method was established based on the recovery obtained between 98.2% and 102.0% for all impurities. RSD obtained for the repeatability and intermediate precision experiments, was less than 1.0%. The method was successfully applied to quantify related substances of micafungin sodium in bulk drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Open AccessArticle Kaempferol Promotes Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer Cells by Inducing the Tumor Suppressor, PTEN
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21215-21226; doi:10.3390/ijms141121215
Received: 21 September 2013 / Revised: 16 October 2013 / Accepted: 18 October 2013 / Published: 24 October 2013
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (2534 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Kaempferol (Kae), a natural flavonoid, is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. Previous studies have identified Kae as a possible cancer preventive and therapeutic agent. We found Kae to exhibit potent antiproliferation and anti-migration effects in human bladder cancer EJ cells. Kaempferol robustly
[...] Read more.
Kaempferol (Kae), a natural flavonoid, is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. Previous studies have identified Kae as a possible cancer preventive and therapeutic agent. We found Kae to exhibit potent antiproliferation and anti-migration effects in human bladder cancer EJ cells. Kaempferol robustly induced apoptosis in EJ cells in a dose-dependent manner, as evidenced by increased cleavage of caspase-3. Furthermore, we found Kae-induced apoptosis in EJ cells to be associated with phosphatase and the tensin homolog deleted on the chromosome 10 (PTEN)/PI3K/Akt pathway. Kae significantly increased PTEN and decreased Akt phosphorylation. Kae-induced apoptosis was partially attenuated in PTEN-knockdown cells. Our findings indicate that Kae could be an alternative medicine for bladder cancer, based on a PTEN activation mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Bioactive Constituents from “Triguero” Asparagus Improve the Plasma Lipid Profile and Liver Antioxidant Status in Hypercholesterolemic Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21227-21239; doi:10.3390/ijms141121227
Received: 22 September 2013 / Revised: 15 October 2013 / Accepted: 21 October 2013 / Published: 24 October 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. “triguero” variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus,
[...] Read more.
We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. “triguero” variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day), saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day) and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day) on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF), the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA), fiber fraction (FF), and flavonoid fraction (FVF) to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that “triguero” asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle The Brachyury Gly177Asp SNP Is not Associated with a Risk of Skull Base Chordoma in the Chinese Population
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21258-21265; doi:10.3390/ijms141121258
Received: 27 May 2013 / Revised: 25 September 2013 / Accepted: 15 October 2013 / Published: 25 October 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A recent chordoma cancer genotyping study reveals that the rs2305089, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in brachyury gene and a key gene in the development of notochord, is significantly associated with chordoma risk. The brachyury gene is believed to be one of
[...] Read more.
A recent chordoma cancer genotyping study reveals that the rs2305089, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in brachyury gene and a key gene in the development of notochord, is significantly associated with chordoma risk. The brachyury gene is believed to be one of the key genes involved in the pathogenesis of chordoma, a rare primary bone tumor originating along the spinal column or at the base of the skull. The association between the brachyury Gly177Asp single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the risk of skull base chordoma in Chinese populations is currently unknown. We investigated the genotype distribution of this SNP in 65 skull-base chordoma cases and 120 healthy subjects. Comparisons of the genotype distributions and allele frequencies did not reveal any significant difference between the groups. Our data suggest that the brachyury Gly177Asp SNP is not involved in the risks of skull-base chordoma, at least in the Chinese population. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Human Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Disease Diagnostics)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystalline Organosiloxanes Containing 4-(4-undecanyloxy bi-phenyl-1-carboxyloxy)phenyl (2S,3S)-2-chloro-3-methylvalerate and 4-(4-undecanyloxybenzoyloxy)biphenyl (2S,3S)-2-chloro-3-methylvalerate
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21306-21318; doi:10.3390/ijms141121306
Received: 16 August 2013 / Revised: 29 September 2013 / Accepted: 30 September 2013 / Published: 25 October 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of new organosiloxane ferroelectric liquid crystalline (FLC) materials have been synthesized, and their mesomorphic and physical properties have been characterized. Four new disiloxanes and trisiloxanes, containing biphenyl 4-hydroxybenzoate and phenyl 4-hydroxybiphenylcarboxylate as mesogenic units and eleven methylene unit as spacers and
[...] Read more.
A series of new organosiloxane ferroelectric liquid crystalline (FLC) materials have been synthesized, and their mesomorphic and physical properties have been characterized. Four new disiloxanes and trisiloxanes, containing biphenyl 4-hydroxybenzoate and phenyl 4-hydroxybiphenylcarboxylate as mesogenic units and eleven methylene unit as spacers and (2S,3S)-2-chloro-3-methylvalerate unit as chiral end groups. The molecule, using three phenyl ring as a mesogenic unit, formulates much wider liquid crystalline phase temperature ranges than that of a two phenyl ring unit. The phenyl arrangement differences of mesogenic unit result in the greater differences of the liquid crystal phase formation. The siloxane molecule induction is helpful to the more regular smectic phase formation and smectic phase stabilization, such as chiral SC (SC*) and SB phases. The siloxane molecule is helpful to reduce the phase transition temperature and broaden the liquid crystal temperature range of the SC* phase and, simultaneously, it will not induce chain crystallization phenomenon and dilute the Ps value. The synthesis and characterization of the new FLCs materials, which exhibit a room temperature SC* phase and higher spontaneous polarization are presented. Full article
Open AccessArticle Enhanced Solar Cell Conversion Efficiency Using Birefringent Liquid Crystal Polymer Homeotropic Films from Reactive Mesogens
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21319-21327; doi:10.3390/ijms141121319
Received: 12 September 2013 / Revised: 12 October 2013 / Accepted: 17 October 2013 / Published: 25 October 2013
PDF Full-text (621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Novel birefringent liquid crystal polymer homeotropic films have been coated on semiconductor solar cells to improve the effective incident sunlight angles. The liquid crystal polymer precursor, based on reactive mesogens, is fluidic and flows like liquid. It would distribute uniformly on the solar
[...] Read more.
Novel birefringent liquid crystal polymer homeotropic films have been coated on semiconductor solar cells to improve the effective incident sunlight angles. The liquid crystal polymer precursor, based on reactive mesogens, is fluidic and flows like liquid. It would distribute uniformly on the solar cell sample surface by any traditional coating technique. The birefringence for light, due to the liquid crystal retardation properties, manipulated the optical length and the deflection of incident light, thus allowed an increase in the energy conversion efficiency. The expensive sunlight tracking systems could be avoided. The processing parameters can be tuned such as different mesogen concentrations and plate speeds of spin-coating. The results showed that the solar cell conversion efficiency was improved from 14.56% to 14.85% at an incident sunlight angle of 15°. It was further improved from 13.40% to 13.81% when the angle was 30°. The interesting angular dependency on solar cell efficiency enhancement has been evaluated. Full article
Open AccessArticle Quinolinic Acid: Neurotoxin or Oxidative Stress Modulator?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21328-21338; doi:10.3390/ijms141121328
Received: 2 September 2013 / Revised: 2 October 2013 / Accepted: 22 October 2013 / Published: 25 October 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (482 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Quinolinic acid (2,3-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, QUIN) is a well-known neurotoxin. Consequently, QUIN could produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are generated in reactions catalyzed by transition metals, especially iron (Fe). QUIN can form coordination complexes with iron. A combination of differential pulse voltammetry, deoxyribose
[...] Read more.
Quinolinic acid (2,3-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, QUIN) is a well-known neurotoxin. Consequently, QUIN could produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are generated in reactions catalyzed by transition metals, especially iron (Fe). QUIN can form coordination complexes with iron. A combination of differential pulse voltammetry, deoxyribose degradation and Fe(II) autoxidation assays was used for explorating ROS formation in redox reactions that are catalyzed by iron in QUIN-Fe complexes. Differential pulse voltammetry showed an anodic shift of the iron redox potential if iron was liganded by QUIN. In the H2O2/FeCl3/ascorbic acid variant of the deoxyribose degradation assay, the dose-response curve was U-shaped. In the FeCl3/ascorbic acid variant, QUIN unambiguously showed antioxidant effects. In the Fe(II) autoxidation assay, QUIN decreased the rate of ROS production caused by Fe(II) oxidation. Our study confirms that QUIN toxicity may be caused by ROS generation via the Fenton reaction. This, however, applies only for unnaturally high concentrations that were used in attempts to provide support for the neurotoxic effect. In lower concentrations, we show that by liganding iron, QUIN affects the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratios that are beneficial to homeostasis. Our results support the notion that redox chemistry can contribute to explaining the hormetic dose-response effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Molecular Research in Neurotoxicology)
Open AccessArticle Homogeneous Liquid–Liquid Extraction of Rare Earths with the Betaine—Betainium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Ionic Liquid System
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21353-21377; doi:10.3390/ijms141121353
Received: 27 August 2013 / Revised: 7 October 2013 / Accepted: 18 October 2013 / Published: 28 October 2013
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (490 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several fundamental extraction parameters such as the kinetics and loading were studied for a new type of metal solvent extraction system with ionic liquids. The binary mixture of the ionic liquid betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and water shows thermomorphic behavior with an upper critical solution
[...] Read more.
Several fundamental extraction parameters such as the kinetics and loading were studied for a new type of metal solvent extraction system with ionic liquids. The binary mixture of the ionic liquid betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and water shows thermomorphic behavior with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST), which can be used to avoid the slower mass transfer due to the generally higher viscosity of ionic liquids. A less viscous homogeneous phase and mixing on a molecular scale are obtained when the mixture is heated up above 55 °C. The influence of the temperature, the heating and cooling times, were studied for the extraction of neodymium(III) with betaine. A plausible and equal extraction mechanism is proposed in bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, nitrate, and chloride media. After stripping of the metals from the ionic liquid phase, a higher recovery of the ionic liquid was obtained by salting-out of the ionic liquid fraction lost by dissolution in the aqueous phase. The change of the upper critical solution temperature by the addition of HCl or betaine was investigated. In addition, the viscosity was measured below and above the UCST as a function of the temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013)
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Open AccessArticle AKIP1, a Cardiac Hypertrophy Induced Protein that Stimulates Cardiomyocyte Growth via the Akt Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21378-21393; doi:10.3390/ijms141121378
Received: 9 August 2013 / Revised: 17 September 2013 / Accepted: 25 September 2013 / Published: 28 October 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1117 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cardiac adaptation to unremitting physiological stress typically involves hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes, a compensatory response that often fails and causes heart disease. Gene array analysis identified AKIP1 (A Kinase Interacting Protein 1) as a hypertrophic gene and we therefore hypothesized a potential role
[...] Read more.
Cardiac adaptation to unremitting physiological stress typically involves hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes, a compensatory response that often fails and causes heart disease. Gene array analysis identified AKIP1 (A Kinase Interacting Protein 1) as a hypertrophic gene and we therefore hypothesized a potential role in the hypertrophic response. We show for the first time that both AKIP1 mRNA and protein levels increased in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes under conditions of sustained cardiac stress, including pressure overload and after myocardial infarction and in vitro in phenylephrine (PE) stimulated neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCs). AKIP1 overexpression in NRVCs markedly stimulated hypertrophic growth responses, including significantly increased cell size, augmented cytoskeletal organization and protein synthesis. Although, AKIP1 was not essential for PE induced hypertrophy in NRVCs, it did potentiate neurohormonal induced protein synthesis. AKIP1 did, however, not induce expression of pathological marker genes like ANP and β-MHC. ERK and Akt kinase signaling pathways have been linked to hypertrophy and AKIP1 specifically induced phosphorylation of Akt. This phosphorylation of Akt was essential for activation of ribosomal rpS6 and translation elongation factor eEF2 and this readily explains the increased protein synthesis. Akt inhibition fully blocked AKIP1 induced hypertrophy, showing that this pathway is critically involved. In conclusion, our results show that AKIP1 is induced in hypertrophic hearts and can stimulate adaptive cardiomyocyte growth, which involves Akt signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Structural Variation of Bamboo Lignin before and after Ethanol Organosolv Pretreatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21394-21413; doi:10.3390/ijms141121394
Received: 18 September 2013 / Revised: 5 October 2013 / Accepted: 10 October 2013 / Published: 28 October 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1071 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In order to make better use of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals, it is necessary to disrupt its recalcitrant structure through pretreatment. Specifically, organosolv pretreatment is a feasible method. The main advantage of this method compared to other
[...] Read more.
In order to make better use of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals, it is necessary to disrupt its recalcitrant structure through pretreatment. Specifically, organosolv pretreatment is a feasible method. The main advantage of this method compared to other lignocellulosic pretreatment technologies is the extraction of high-quality lignin for the production of value-added products. In this study, bamboo was treated in a batch reactor with 70% ethanol at 180 °C for 2 h. Lignin fractions were isolated from the hydrolysate by centrifugation and then precipitated as ethanol organosolv lignin. Two types of milled wood lignins (MWLs) were isolated from the raw bamboo and the organosolv pretreated residue separately. After the pretreatment, a decrease of lignin (preferentially guaiacyl unit), hemicelluloses and less ordered cellulose was detected in the bamboo material. It was confirmed that the bamboo MWL is of HGS type (p-hydroxyphenyl (H), vanillin (G), syringaldehyde (S)) associated with a considerable amount of p-coumarate and ferulic esters of lignin. The ethanol organosolv treatment was shown to remove significant amounts of lignin and hemicelluloses without strongly affecting lignin primary structure and its lignin functional groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences and Nanotechnology)
Open AccessArticle MiR-205 Is Progressively Down-Regulated in Lymph Node Metastasis but Fails as a Prognostic Biomarker in High-Risk Prostate Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21414-21434; doi:10.3390/ijms141121414
Received: 22 July 2013 / Revised: 1 October 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 29 October 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1282 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The treatment of high-risk prostate cancer (HRPCa) is a tremendous challenge for uro-oncologists. The identification of predictive moleculobiological markers allowing risk assessment of lymph node metastasis and systemic progression is essential in establishing effective treatment. In the current study, we investigate the prognostic
[...] Read more.
The treatment of high-risk prostate cancer (HRPCa) is a tremendous challenge for uro-oncologists. The identification of predictive moleculobiological markers allowing risk assessment of lymph node metastasis and systemic progression is essential in establishing effective treatment. In the current study, we investigate the prognostic potential of miR-205 in HRPCa study and validation cohorts, setting defined clinical endpoints for both. We demonstrate miR-205 to be significantly down-regulated in over 70% of the HRPCa samples analysed and that reconstitution of miR-205 causes inhibition of proliferation and invasiveness in prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines. Additionally, miR-205 is increasingly down-regulated in lymph node metastases compared to the primary tumour indicating that miR-205 plays a role in migration of PCa cells from the original location into extraprostatic tissue. Nevertheless, down-regulation of miR-205 in primary PCa was not correlated to the synchronous presence of metastasis and failed to predict the outcome for HRPCa patients. Moreover, we found a tendency for miR-205 up-regulation to correlate with an adverse outcome of PCa patients suggesting a pivotal role of miR-205 in tumourigenesis. Overall, we showed that miR-205 is involved in the development and metastasis of PCa, but failed to work as a useful clinical biomarker in HRPCa. These findings might have implications for the use of miR-205 as a prognostic or therapeutic target in HRPCa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Urology)
Open AccessArticle Glycosyltransferase GLT8D2 Positively Regulates ApoB100 Protein Expression in Hepatocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21435-21446; doi:10.3390/ijms141121435
Received: 18 July 2013 / Revised: 11 September 2013 / Accepted: 12 September 2013 / Published: 29 October 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by triglyceride (TG) accumulation in hepatocytes. Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) is a major secretory product of the liver that transports endogenously synthesized TG. Disrupted VLDL secretion may contribute to the accumulation of TG in hepatocytes.
[...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by triglyceride (TG) accumulation in hepatocytes. Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) is a major secretory product of the liver that transports endogenously synthesized TG. Disrupted VLDL secretion may contribute to the accumulation of TG in hepatocytes. ApoB100 (apolipoprotein B100) is a glycoprotein and an essential protein component of VLDL. Its glycosylation may affect VLDL assembly and secretion. However, which glycosyltransferase catalyzes apoB100 glycosylation is unknown. In this study, we cloned the GLT8D2 (glycosyltransferase 8 domain containing 2) gene from HepG2 cells and generated a series of plasmids for in vitro studies of its molecular functions. We discovered that GLT8D2 was localized in the ER, interacted with apoB100, and positively regulated the levels of apoB100 protein in HepG2 cells. Based on these results, we propose that GLT8D2 is a glycosyltransferase of apoB100 that regulates apoB100 levels in hepatocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Research)
Open AccessArticle Protective Roles of Gadd45 and MDM2 in Blueberry Anthocyanins Mediated DNA Repair of Fragmented and Non-Fragmented DNA Damage in UV-Irradiated HepG2 Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21447-21462; doi:10.3390/ijms141121447
Received: 27 July 2013 / Revised: 3 September 2013 / Accepted: 4 September 2013 / Published: 30 October 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1972 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Growth Arrest and DNA Damage-inducible 45 (Gadd45) and MDM2 proteins, together with p21 and p53, play important roles in cell cycle checkpoints, DNA repair, and genome integrity maintenance. Gadd45 and MDM2 were activated and transcribed instantly by UV irradiation, whereas blueberry anthocyanins (BA)
[...] Read more.
Growth Arrest and DNA Damage-inducible 45 (Gadd45) and MDM2 proteins, together with p21 and p53, play important roles in cell cycle checkpoints, DNA repair, and genome integrity maintenance. Gadd45 and MDM2 were activated and transcribed instantly by UV irradiation, whereas blueberry anthocyanins (BA) decreased the gene and protein expression levels in HepG2 cells for up to 24 h, and gradually restored the UV-induced fragmented and non-fragmented DNA damage of the nucleus at a time point of 12 h. Nevertheless, UV-irradiated HepG2 cell arrests occurred mainly in the G1 phase, which indicated G1 as a checkpoint. The proteins, p21 and p53, retain cellular integrity, suppressing the oncogenic transformation by interruption of the G1 phase of the cellular cycle, giving time for repairing the damage to DNA, or apoptosis induction if the damage is too severe to be repaired, while MDM2 and Gadd45 concomitantly ensure the presence of p53 and p21. Thus, we conclude that repair, together with Gadd45 and MDM2 genes, were involved in light and dark reaction mechanisms, however, BA could interfere and assist the repair through restoration, although further studies of the complex of the gene cascades triggered and responded to in BA-assisted DNA repair are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Imbalance between Th17 and Regulatory T-Cells in Sarcoidosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21463-21473; doi:10.3390/ijms141121463
Received: 27 May 2013 / Revised: 18 October 2013 / Accepted: 23 October 2013 / Published: 30 October 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (790 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease, which is thought to result from an aberrant immune response. CD4+ T lymphocytes play an important role in the development of granulomas. Previously, the immunopathogenesis of sarcoidosis was focused on Th1/Th2 disturbances. The aim of this
[...] Read more.
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease, which is thought to result from an aberrant immune response. CD4+ T lymphocytes play an important role in the development of granulomas. Previously, the immunopathogenesis of sarcoidosis was focused on Th1/Th2 disturbances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the balance between newer CD4+ T lymphocytes, i.e., Treg and Th17 cells. In our studies, a decrease in Treg cells and an increase in Th17 cells were observed in the peripheral blood and BALF of sarcoidosis patients. A significant increase in the Th17/Treg cell ratio was observed in sarcoidosis patients. After treatment with prednisone, the expression of Foxp3 mRNA was elevated in the peripheral blood, and expression of (ROR)γt mRNA showed a downward trend. These findings suggest that sarcoidosis is associated with an imbalance between Th17 and Treg cells in peripheral blood and BALF. Therefore, targeting the cytokines that affect the Th17/Treg ratio could provide a new promising therapy for pulmonary sarcoidosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Short-Chain Fatty Acids Inhibit Growth Hormone and Prolactin Gene Transcription via cAMP/PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway in Dairy Cow Anterior Pituitary Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21474-21488; doi:10.3390/ijms141121474
Received: 6 August 2013 / Revised: 26 September 2013 / Accepted: 30 September 2013 / Published: 30 October 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1851 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play a key role in altering carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, influence endocrine pancreas activity, and as a precursor of ruminant milk fat. However, the effect and detailed mechanisms by which SCFAs mediate bovine growth hormone (GH) and
[...] Read more.
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play a key role in altering carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, influence endocrine pancreas activity, and as a precursor of ruminant milk fat. However, the effect and detailed mechanisms by which SCFAs mediate bovine growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) gene transcription remain unclear. In this study, we detected the effects of SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) on the activity of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway, GH, PRL, and Pit-1 gene transcription in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells (DCAPCs). The results showed that SCFAs decreased intracellular cAMP levels and a subsequent reduction in PKA activity. Inhibition of PKA activity decreased CREB phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting GH and PRL gene transcription. Furthermore, PTX blocked SCFAs- inhibited cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. These data showed that the inhibition of GH and PRL gene transcription induced by SCFAs is mediated by Gi activation and that propionate is more potent than acetate and butyrate in inhibiting GH and PRL gene transcription. In conclusion, this study identifies a biochemical mechanism for the regulation of SCFAs on bovine GH and PRL gene transcription in DCAPCs, which may serve as one of the factors that regulate pituitary function in accordance with dietary intake. Full article
Open AccessArticle NF-κB-Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina in Macrophages RAW 264.7
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21489-21503; doi:10.3390/ijms141121489
Received: 24 August 2013 / Revised: 29 September 2013 / Accepted: 23 October 2013 / Published: 30 October 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (912 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina, a herbal medicine, has long been used in Korea for the treatment of sore throat, and to alleviate fever and accelerate wound healing. Although the therapeutic effect of P. vulgaris var. lilacina is likely associated with anti-inflammatory activity,
[...] Read more.
Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina, a herbal medicine, has long been used in Korea for the treatment of sore throat, and to alleviate fever and accelerate wound healing. Although the therapeutic effect of P. vulgaris var. lilacina is likely associated with anti-inflammatory activity, the precise underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we sought to elucidate the possible mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory activity. We have investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of the various solvent fractions (hexane, butanol, chloroform and water) from the ethanol extract of P. vulgaris var. lilacina in activated macrophages. The hexane fraction exhibited higher anti-inflammatory activities, inducing inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Moreover, the hexane fraction from P. vulgaris var. lilacina significantly inhibited the activation of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p50 and p65 subunits. These results indicate that P. vulgaris var. lilacina has an anti-inflammatory capacity in vitro, suggesting that it could be a potential source of natural anti-inflammatory agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Neuroprotective Effects of Liraglutide for Stroke Model of Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21513-21524; doi:10.3390/ijms141121513
Received: 2 September 2013 / Revised: 18 October 2013 / Accepted: 23 October 2013 / Published: 30 October 2013
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The number of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients is increasing, and stroke is deeply associated with DM. Recently, neuroprotective effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are reported. In this study, we explored whether liraglutide, a GLP-1 analogue exerts therapeutic effects on a rat stroke model.
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The number of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients is increasing, and stroke is deeply associated with DM. Recently, neuroprotective effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are reported. In this study, we explored whether liraglutide, a GLP-1 analogue exerts therapeutic effects on a rat stroke model. Wistar rats received occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 90 min. At one hour after reperfusion, liraglutide or saline was administered intraperitoneally. Modified Bederson’s test was performed at 1 and 24 h and, subsequently, rats were euthanized for histological investigation. Peripheral blood was obtained for measurement of blood glucose level and evaluation of oxidative stress. Brain tissues were collected to evaluate the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The behavioral scores of liraglutide-treated rats were significantly better than those of control rats. Infarct volumes of liraglutide-treated rats at were reduced, compared with those of control rats. The level of derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolite was lower in liraglutide-treated rats. VEGF level of liraglutide-treated rats in the cortex, but not in the striatum significantly increased, compared to that of control rats. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate neuroprotective effects of liraglutide on cerebral ischemia through anti-oxidative effects and VEGF upregulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathology and Treatment of Central Nervous System Diseases)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Different Intensities of Treadmill Exercise on Cognitive Function Deficit Following a Severe Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21598-21612; doi:10.3390/ijms141121598
Received: 30 August 2013 / Revised: 12 October 2013 / Accepted: 17 October 2013 / Published: 31 October 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (591 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Exercise has been proposed for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the proper intensity of exercise in the early phase following a severe TBI is largely unknown. To compare two different treadmill exercise intensities on the cognitive function following a severe
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Exercise has been proposed for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the proper intensity of exercise in the early phase following a severe TBI is largely unknown. To compare two different treadmill exercise intensities on the cognitive function following a severe TBI in its early phase, rats experienced a controlled cortical impact (CCI) and were forced to treadmill exercise for 14 days. The results revealed that the rats in the low intensity exercise group had a shorter latency to locate a platform and a significantly better improvement in spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The high intensity exercise group showed a longer latency and a mild improvement in spatial memory compared to the control group rats in the MWM; however, this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and p-CREB protein levels in the contralateral hippocampus were increased significantly in the low intensity exercise group. Our results suggest that 2 weeks of low intensity of treadmill exercise is beneficial for improving cognitive function and increasing hippocampal BDNF expression after a severe TBI in its early phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Recognition)
Open AccessArticle Ultrastructural Interactions and Genotoxicity Assay of Cerium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Mouse Oocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21613-21628; doi:10.3390/ijms141121613
Received: 23 August 2013 / Revised: 4 October 2013 / Accepted: 17 October 2013 / Published: 31 October 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (727 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 ENPs) are on the priority list of nanomaterials requiring evaluation. We performed in vitro assays on mature mouse oocytes incubated with CeO2 ENPs to study (1) physicochemical biotransformation of ENPs in culture medium;
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Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 ENPs) are on the priority list of nanomaterials requiring evaluation. We performed in vitro assays on mature mouse oocytes incubated with CeO2 ENPs to study (1) physicochemical biotransformation of ENPs in culture medium; (2) ultrastructural interactions with follicular cells and oocytes using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM); (3) genotoxicity of CeO2 ENPs on follicular cells and oocytes using a comet assay. DNA damage was quantified as Olive Tail Moment. We show that ENPs aggregated, but their crystal structure remained stable in culture medium. TEM showed endocytosis of CeO2 ENP aggregates in follicular cells. In oocytes, CeO2 ENP aggregates were only observed around the zona pellucida (ZP). The comet assay revealed significant DNA damage in follicular cells. In oocytes, the comet assay showed a dose-related increase in DNA damage and a significant increase only at the highest concentrations. DNA damage decreased significantly both in follicular cells and in oocytes when an anti-oxidant agent was added in the culture medium. We hypothesise that at low concentrations of CeO2 ENPs oocytes could be protected against indirect oxidative stress due to a double defence system composed of follicular cells and ZP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction between Nano-Structure Materials and Cells)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Insight into the Cardiotoxicity of Antineoplastic Drug Doxorubicin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21629-21646; doi:10.3390/ijms141121629
Received: 29 August 2013 / Revised: 26 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 31 October 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1073 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Doxorubicin is a commonly used antineoplastic agent in the treatment of many types of cancer. Little is known about the interactions of doxorubicin with cardiac biomolecules. Serious cardiotoxicity including dilated cardiomyopathy often resulting in a fatal congestive heart failure may occur as a
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Doxorubicin is a commonly used antineoplastic agent in the treatment of many types of cancer. Little is known about the interactions of doxorubicin with cardiac biomolecules. Serious cardiotoxicity including dilated cardiomyopathy often resulting in a fatal congestive heart failure may occur as a consequence of chemotherapy with doxorubicin. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to doxorubicin on the changes in major amino acids in tissue of cardiac muscle (proline, taurine, glutamic acid, arginine, aspartic acid, leucine, glycine, valine, alanine, isoleucine, threonine, lysine and serine). An in vitro interaction study was performed as a comparison of amino acid profiles in heart tissue before and after application of doxorubicin. We found that doxorubicin directly influences myocardial amino acid representation even at low concentrations. In addition, we performed an interaction study that resulted in the determination of breaking points for each of analyzed amino acids. Lysine, arginine, β-alanine, valine and serine were determined as the most sensitive amino acids. Additionally we compared amino acid profiles of myocardium before and after exposure to doxorubicin. The amount of amino acids after interaction with doxorubicin was significantly reduced (p = 0.05). This fact points at an ability of doxorubicin to induce changes in quantitative composition of amino acids in myocardium. Moreover, this confirms that the interactions between doxorubicin and amino acids may act as another factor most likely responsible for adverse effects of doxorubicin on myocardium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cancer Diagnosis)
Open AccessArticle Fast Disintegrating Quercetin-Loaded Drug Delivery Systems Fabricated Using Coaxial Electrospinning
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21647-21659; doi:10.3390/ijms141121647
Received: 12 October 2013 / Revised: 26 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 31 October 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1608 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study is to develop a structural nanocomposite of multiple components in the form of core-sheath nanofibres using coaxial electrospinning for the fast dissolving of a poorly water-soluble drug quercetin. Under the selected conditions, core-sheath nanofibres with quercetin and sodium
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The objective of this study is to develop a structural nanocomposite of multiple components in the form of core-sheath nanofibres using coaxial electrospinning for the fast dissolving of a poorly water-soluble drug quercetin. Under the selected conditions, core-sheath nanofibres with quercetin and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) distributed in the core and sheath part of nanofibres, respectively, were successfully generated, and the drug content in the nanofibres was able to be controlled simply through manipulating the core fluid flow rates. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images demonstrated that the nanofibres prepared from the single sheath fluid and double core/sheath fluids (with core-to-sheath flow rate ratios of 0.4 and 0.7) have linear morphology with a uniform structure and smooth surface. The TEM images clearly demonstrated the core-sheath structures of the produced nanocomposites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results verified that quercetin and SDS were well distributed in the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) matrix in an amorphous state, due to the favourite second-order interactions. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the core-sheath composite nanofibre mats could disintegrate rapidly to release quercetin within 1 min. The study reported here provides an example of the systematic design, preparation, characterization and application of a new type of structural nanocomposite as a fast-disintegrating drug delivery system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2013)
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Open AccessArticle Methanobactin-Mediated One-Step Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21676-21688; doi:10.3390/ijms141121676
Received: 16 September 2013 / Revised: 1 October 2013 / Accepted: 10 October 2013 / Published: 1 November 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (486 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Preparation of gold nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution has enormous importance in nanotechnology. Methanobactin (Mb) is a copper-binding small peptide that appears to function as an agent for copper sequestration and uptake in methanotrophs. Mb can also bind and catalytically reduce Au
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Preparation of gold nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution has enormous importance in nanotechnology. Methanobactin (Mb) is a copper-binding small peptide that appears to function as an agent for copper sequestration and uptake in methanotrophs. Mb can also bind and catalytically reduce Au (III) to Au (0). In this study, we demonstrate a facile Mb-mediated one-step synthetic route to prepare monodispersed gold nanoparticles. Continuous reduction of Au (III) by Mb can be achieved by using hydroquinone as the reducing agent. The gold nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. The formation and the surface plasmon resonance properties of the gold nanoparticles are highly dependent on the ratio of Au (III) to Mb in solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fluorescence spectra and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra suggest that Mb molecules catalytically reduce Au (III) to Au (0) with the concomitant production of gold nanoparticles, and then, Mb statically adsorbed onto the surface of gold nanoparticles to form an Mb-gold nanoparticles assembly. This avoids secondary nucleation. The formed gold nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be monodispersed and uniform by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Analysis of these particles shows an average size of 14.9 nm with a standard deviation of 1.1 nm. The gold nanoparticles are extremely stable and can resist aggregation, even after several months. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Supramolecular Systems)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Soybean Agglutinin on Mechanical Barrier Function and Tight Junction Protein Expression in Intestinal Epithelial Cells from Piglets
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21689-21704; doi:10.3390/ijms141121689
Received: 28 August 2013 / Revised: 24 September 2013 / Accepted: 8 October 2013 / Published: 1 November 2013
PDF Full-text (446 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we sought to investigate the role of soybean agglutinin (SBA) in mediating membrane permeability and the mechanical barrier function of intestinal epithelial cells. The IPEC-J2 cells were cultured and treated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0 mg/mL
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In this study, we sought to investigate the role of soybean agglutinin (SBA) in mediating membrane permeability and the mechanical barrier function of intestinal epithelial cells. The IPEC-J2 cells were cultured and treated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0 mg/mL SBA. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity were measured to evaluate membrane permeability. The results showed a significant decrease in TEER values (p < 0.05) in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and a pronounced increase in AP activity (p < 0.05). Cell growth and cell morphology were used to evaluate the cell viability. A significant cell growth inhibition (p < 0.05) and alteration of morphology were observed when the concentration of SBA was increased. The results of western blotting showed that the expression levels of occludin and claudin-3 were decreased by 31% and 64% compared to those of the control, respectively (p < 0.05). In addition, immunofluorescence labeling indicated an obvious decrease in staining of these targets and changes in their localizations. In conclusion, SBA increased the membrane permeability, inhibited the cell viability and reduced the levels of tight junction proteins (occludin and claudin-3), leading to a decrease in mechanical barrier function in intestinal epithelial cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Aberrant Expression of Posterior HOX Genes in Well Differentiated Histotypes of Thyroid Cancers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21727-21740; doi:10.3390/ijms141121727
Received: 25 September 2013 / Revised: 14 October 2013 / Accepted: 17 October 2013 / Published: 1 November 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1325 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Molecular etiology of thyroid cancers has been widely studied, and several molecular alterations have been identified mainly associated with follicular and papillary histotypes. However, the molecular bases of the complex pathogenesis of thyroid carcinomas remain poorly understood. HOX genes regulate normal embryonic development,
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Molecular etiology of thyroid cancers has been widely studied, and several molecular alterations have been identified mainly associated with follicular and papillary histotypes. However, the molecular bases of the complex pathogenesis of thyroid carcinomas remain poorly understood. HOX genes regulate normal embryonic development, cell differentiation and other critical processes in eukaryotic cell life. Several studies have shown that HOX genes play a role in neoplastic transformation of several human tissues. In particular, the genes belonging to HOX paralogous group 13 seem to hold a relevant role in both tumor development and progression. We have identified a significant prognostic role of HOX D13 in pancreatic cancer and we have recently showed the strong and progressive over-expression of HOX C13 in melanoma metastases and deregulation of HOX B13 expression in bladder cancers. In this study we have investigated, by immunohistochemisty and quantitative Real Time PCR, the HOX paralogous group 13 genes/proteins expression in thyroid cancer evolution and progression, also evaluating its ability to discriminate between main histotypes. Our results showed an aberrant expression, both at gene and protein level, of all members belonging to paralogous group 13 (HOX A13, HOX B13, HOX C13 and HOX D13) in adenoma, papillary and follicular thyroid cancers samples. The data suggest a potential role of HOX paralogous group 13 genes in pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of thyroid cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Bases of Cancer Research)
Open AccessArticle Design, Synthesis, Antifungal Activities and 3D-QSAR of New N,N'-Diacylhydrazines Containing 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy Moiety
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21741-21756; doi:10.3390/ijms141121741
Received: 1 September 2013 / Revised: 21 October 2013 / Accepted: 23 October 2013 / Published: 1 November 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (471 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of new N,N'-diacylhydrazine derivatives were designed and synthesized. Their structures were verified by 1H-NMR, mass spectra (MS) and elemental analysis. The antifungal activities of these N,N'-diacylhydrazines were evaluated. The bioassay results showed that most
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A series of new N,N'-diacylhydrazine derivatives were designed and synthesized. Their structures were verified by 1H-NMR, mass spectra (MS) and elemental analysis. The antifungal activities of these N,N'-diacylhydrazines were evaluated. The bioassay results showed that most of these N,N'-diacylhydrazines showed excellent antifungal activities against Cladosporium cucumerinum, Corynespora cassiicola, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Erysiphe cichoracearum, and Colletotrichum orbiculare in vivo. The half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of one of the compounds was also determined, and found to be comparable with a commercial drug. To further investigate the structure–activity relationship, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) was performed on the basis of antifungal activity data. Both the steric and electronic field distributions of CoMFA are in good agreement in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Anti-Biofilm Performance of Three Natural Products against Initial Bacterial Attachment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21757-21780; doi:10.3390/ijms141121757
Received: 18 September 2013 / Revised: 13 October 2013 / Accepted: 15 October 2013 / Published: 4 November 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine bacteria contribute significantly towards the fouling consortium, both directly (modern foul release coatings fail to prevent “slime” attachment) and indirectly (biofilms often excrete chemical cues that attract macrofouling settlement). This study assessed the natural product anti-biofilm performance of an extract of the
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Marine bacteria contribute significantly towards the fouling consortium, both directly (modern foul release coatings fail to prevent “slime” attachment) and indirectly (biofilms often excrete chemical cues that attract macrofouling settlement). This study assessed the natural product anti-biofilm performance of an extract of the seaweed, Chondrus crispus, and two isolated compounds from terrestrial sources, (+)-usnic acid and juglone, against two marine biofilm forming bacteria, Cobetia marina and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. Bioassays were developed using quantitative imaging and fluorescent labelling to test the natural products over a range of concentrations against initial bacterial attachment. All natural products affected bacterial attachment; however, juglone demonstrated the best anti-biofilm performance against both bacterial species at a concentration range between 5–20 ppm. In addition, for the first time, a dose-dependent inhibition (hormetic) response was observed for natural products against marine biofilm forming bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Non (Limited)-Toxic Antifouling Solutions)
Open AccessArticle Cladieunicellins K and L, New Eunicellin-Based Diterpenoids from an Octocoral Cladiella sp.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21781-21789; doi:10.3390/ijms141121781
Received: 8 October 2013 / Revised: 26 October 2013 / Accepted: 29 October 2013 / Published: 4 November 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract Two new eunicellin-based diterpenoids, cladieunicellins K (1) and L (2), were isolated from an octocoral Cladiella sp. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and 2 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity towards the MOLT-4 human leukemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Combination of Fenretinide and Selenite Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Ovarian Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21790-21804; doi:10.3390/ijms141121790
Received: 20 July 2013 / Revised: 17 October 2013 / Accepted: 22 October 2013 / Published: 4 November 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1405 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The combination of fenretinide and selenite on ovarian cancer cells was investigated to assess its effects on proliferation and ability to induce apoptosis. Our results showed that fenretinide and selenite in combination significantly suppress the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells and induced apoptosis
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The combination of fenretinide and selenite on ovarian cancer cells was investigated to assess its effects on proliferation and ability to induce apoptosis. Our results showed that fenretinide and selenite in combination significantly suppress the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells and induced apoptosis (including reactive oxygen species generation, and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential) compared with either drug used alone. The caspase3/9-dependent pathway was triggered significantly in combination treatment, and moreover, the AMPK pathway also mediated the apoptosis induction in fenretinide and selenite combination. Fenretinide and selenite combination treatment was demonstrated to suppress tumor growth in vivo, this drug combination has been thus found to have an enhanced anti-tumor effect on ovarian cancers cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genes and Pathways in the Pathogenesis of Ovarian Cancer)
Open AccessArticle New Potential Antitumor Pyrazole Derivatives: Synthesis and Cytotoxic Evaluation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21805-21818; doi:10.3390/ijms141121805
Received: 5 September 2013 / Revised: 22 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 4 November 2013
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New pyrazole derivatives were designed and synthesized as potential protein kinase inhibitors in the view to develop specific antitumor therapies. The structures of the compounds were elucidated using spectral and elemental analyses. The antitumor potential was estimated using wheat seeds and the general
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New pyrazole derivatives were designed and synthesized as potential protein kinase inhibitors in the view to develop specific antitumor therapies. The structures of the compounds were elucidated using spectral and elemental analyses. The antitumor potential was estimated using wheat seeds and the general toxicity was evaluated by alternative methods, using invertebrate animals. One 3-aminopyrazole derivative emerged as a potential candidate for the development of future cytotoxic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Opposite Associations of Plasma Homoarginine and Ornithine with Arginine in Healthy Children and Adolescents
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21819-21832; doi:10.3390/ijms141121819
Received: 12 August 2013 / Revised: 20 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 4 November 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Homoarginine, a non-proteinogenic amino acid, is formed when lysine replaces ornithine in reactions catalyzed by hepatic urea cycle enzymes or lysine substitutes for glycine as a substrate of renal arginine:glycine amidinotransferase. Decreased circulating homoarginine and elevated ornithine, a downstream product of arginase, predict
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Homoarginine, a non-proteinogenic amino acid, is formed when lysine replaces ornithine in reactions catalyzed by hepatic urea cycle enzymes or lysine substitutes for glycine as a substrate of renal arginine:glycine amidinotransferase. Decreased circulating homoarginine and elevated ornithine, a downstream product of arginase, predict adverse cardiovascular outcome. Our aim was to investigate correlates of plasma homoarginine and ornithine and their relations with carotid vascular structure in 40 healthy children and adolescents aged 3–18 years without coexistent diseases or subclinical carotid atherosclerosis. Homoarginine, ornithine, arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Intima-media thickness (IMT) and extra-medial thickness (EMT) of common carotid arteries were estimated by B-mode ultrasound. Homoarginine correlated with arginine (r = 0.43, p = 0.005), age (r = 0.42, p = 0.007) and, weakly, with an increased arginine-to-ornithine ratio, a putative measure of lower arginase activity (r = 0.31, p = 0.048). Ornithine correlated inversely with arginine (r = −0.64, p < 0.001). IMT, EMT or their sum were unrelated to any of the biochemical parameters (p > 0.12). Thus, opposite associations of plasma homoarginine and ornithine with arginine may partially result from possible involvement of arginase, an enzyme controlling homoarginine degradation and ornithine synthesis from arginine. Age-dependency of homoarginine levels can reflect developmental changes in homoarginine metabolism. However, neither homoarginine nor ornithine appears to be associated with carotid vascular structure in healthy children and adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ADMA and Nitrergic System)
Open AccessArticle Adrenergic Metabolic and Hemodynamic Effects of Octopamine in the Liver
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21858-21872; doi:10.3390/ijms141121858
Received: 21 September 2013 / Revised: 21 October 2013 / Accepted: 22 October 2013 / Published: 5 November 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The fruit extracts of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) are traditionally used as weight-loss products and as appetite suppressants. A component of these extracts is octopamine, which is an adrenergic agent. Weight-loss and adrenergic actions are always related to metabolic changes and this work
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The fruit extracts of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) are traditionally used as weight-loss products and as appetite suppressants. A component of these extracts is octopamine, which is an adrenergic agent. Weight-loss and adrenergic actions are always related to metabolic changes and this work was designed to investigate a possible action of octopamine on liver metabolism. The isolated perfused rat liver was used to measure catabolic and anabolic pathways and hemodynamics. Octopamine increased glycogenolysis, glycolysis, oxygen uptake, gluconeogenesis and the portal perfusion pressure. Octopamine also accelerated the oxidation of exogenous fatty acids (octanoate and oleate), as revealed by the increase in 14CO2 production derived from 14C labeled precursors. The changes in glycogenolysis, oxygen uptake and perfusion pressure were almost completely abolished by α1-adrenergic antagonists. The same changes were partly sensitive to the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol. It can be concluded that octopamine accelerates both catabolic and anabolic processes in the liver via adrenergic stimulation. Acceleration of oxygen uptake under substrate-free perfusion conditions also means acceleration of the oxidation of endogenous fatty acids, which are derived from lipolysis. All these effects are compatible with an overall stimulating effect of octopamine on metabolism, which is compatible with its reported weight-loss effects in experimental animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Control of Metabolism)
Open AccessArticle Hepatic Adverse Effects of Fructose Consumption Independent of Overweight/Obesity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21873-21886; doi:10.3390/ijms141121873
Received: 12 September 2013 / Revised: 17 October 2013 / Accepted: 23 October 2013 / Published: 5 November 2013
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (2196 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The chronic intake of fructose has been linked to insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which in turn, may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We aimed to evaluate the magnitude of the effects of the chronic consumption of high-fructose
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The chronic intake of fructose has been linked to insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which in turn, may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We aimed to evaluate the magnitude of the effects of the chronic consumption of high-fructose (HFr) and high fat (HF) alone or combined. Four groups of male mice were fed different diets for 16 weeks: standard chow (9% fat: SC), HF diet (42% fat), HFr diet (34% fructose) and HF/HFr diet (42% fat, 34% fructose). The food intake was not different among the groups, and the body mass was not greater in the HFr group than in the SC group. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), as well as plasmatic total cholesterol and triglycerides were greater in the groups HF, HFr, and HF/HFr group than in the SC group. We observed in the groups HF, HFr and HF/HFr, compared to the group SC, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with a predominance of lipogenesis mediated by SREBP-1c and PPAR-γ, and a reduction of the oxidation mediated by PPAR-α. We also observed an increase in gluconeogenesis mediated by the GLUT-2 and the PEPCK. Importantly, we identified areas of necroinflammation indicating a transition from NAFLD to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in the HFr and HF/HFr groups. This study is relevant in demonstrating that fructose consumption, even in the absence of obesity, causes serious and deleterious changes in the liver with the presence of the dyslipidemia, insulin resistance (IR), and NAFLD with areas of necroinflammation. These conditions are associated with a poor prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Molecular Mechanisms of Human Liver Diseases)
Open AccessArticle The Anti-Fasciolasis Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Produced by Trichoderma harzianum and Their Improvement of the Anti-Fasciolasis Drug Triclabendazole
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21887-21898; doi:10.3390/ijms141121887
Received: 22 September 2013 / Revised: 21 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 5 November 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, new strains of Fasciola demonstrated drug resistance, which increased the need for new drugs or improvement of the present drugs. Nanotechnology is expected to open some new opportunities to fight and prevent diseases using an atomic scale tailoring of materials. The ability
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Recently, new strains of Fasciola demonstrated drug resistance, which increased the need for new drugs or improvement of the present drugs. Nanotechnology is expected to open some new opportunities to fight and prevent diseases using an atomic scale tailoring of materials. The ability to uncover the structure and function of biosystems at the nanoscale, stimulates research leading to improvement in biology, biotechnology, medicine and healthcare. The size of nanomaterials is similar to that of most biological molecules and structures; therefore, nanomaterials can be useful for both in vivo and in vitro biomedical research and applications. Therefore, this work aimed to isolate fungal strains from Taif soil samples, which have the ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles. The fungus Trichoderma harzianum, when challenged with silver nitrate solution, accumulated silver nanoparticles (AgNBs) on the surface of its cell wall in 72 h. These nanoparticles, dislodged by ultrasonication, showed an absorption peak at 420 nm in a UV-visible spectrum, corresponding to the plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. The transmission electron micrographs of dislodged nanoparticles in aqueous solution showed the production of reasonably monodisperse silver nanoparticles (average particle size: 4.66 nm) by the fungus. The percentage of non hatching eggs treated with the Triclabendazole drug was 69.67%, while this percentage increased to 89.67% in combination with drug and AgNPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2013)
Open AccessArticle Differentiated Epithelial- and Mesenchymal-Like Phenotypes in Subcutaneous Mouse Xenografts Using Diffusion Weighted-Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21943-21959; doi:10.3390/ijms141121943
Received: 22 July 2013 / Revised: 22 October 2013 / Accepted: 24 October 2013 / Published: 5 November 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1400 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is important for tumor metastasis. Detection of EMT protein expression and observation of morphological changes are commonly used to identify EMT. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and measuring apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values are noninvasive techniques for characterizing tumor microenvironments.
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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is important for tumor metastasis. Detection of EMT protein expression and observation of morphological changes are commonly used to identify EMT. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and measuring apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values are noninvasive techniques for characterizing tumor microenvironments. We investigated the difference in ADC values between epithelial- and mesenchymal-like subcutaneous mouse xenografted tumors using DW-MRI. Epithelial-like MM189 PB-Klf4 and BL322 PB-Klf4 cells were generated from tumor suppressive Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4)-expressing mesenchymal-like MM189 and BL322 cells. The ADC values of xenografted tumors from epithelial-like MM189 PB-Klf4 and BL322 PB-Klf4 were significantly lower than those from their mesenchymal-like counterparts (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Our results suggested that DW-MRI is a potential tool for observing mesenchymal- or epithelial-like characteristics of subcutaneous xenografted tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Biofilms’ Role in Planktonic Cell Proliferation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21965-21982; doi:10.3390/ijms141121965
Received: 5 September 2013 / Revised: 10 October 2013 / Accepted: 22 October 2013 / Published: 6 November 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2442 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The detachment of single cells from biofilms is an intrinsic part of this surface-associated mode of bacterial existence. Pseudomonas sp. strain CT07gfp biofilms, cultivated in microfluidic channels under continuous flow conditions, were subjected to a range of liquid shear stresses (9.42 mPa
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The detachment of single cells from biofilms is an intrinsic part of this surface-associated mode of bacterial existence. Pseudomonas sp. strain CT07gfp biofilms, cultivated in microfluidic channels under continuous flow conditions, were subjected to a range of liquid shear stresses (9.42 mPa to 320 mPa). The number of detached planktonic cells was quantified from the effluent at 24-h intervals, while average biofilm thickness and biofilm surface area were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis. Biofilm accumulation proceeded at the highest applied shear stress, while similar rates of planktonic cell detachment was maintained for biofilms of the same age subjected to the range of average shear rates. The conventional view of liquid-mediated shear leading to the passive erosion of single cells from the biofilm surface, disregards the active contribution of attached cell metabolism and growth to the observed detachment rates. As a complement to the conventional conceptual biofilm models, the existence of a biofilm surface-associated zone of planktonic cell proliferation is proposed to highlight the need to expand the traditional perception of biofilms as promoting microbial survival, to include the potential of biofilms to contribute to microbial proliferation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilms: Extracellular Bastions of Bacteria) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Silencing the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 Genes in Tomato Reduces Abscisic Acid—Mediated Drought Tolerance
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21983-21996; doi:10.3390/ijms141121983
Received: 16 August 2013 / Revised: 28 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 6 November 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Drought is a major threat to agriculture production worldwide. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play a pivotal role in sensing and converting stress signals into appropriate responses so that plants can adapt and survive. To examine the function of MAPKs in the drought tolerance
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Drought is a major threat to agriculture production worldwide. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play a pivotal role in sensing and converting stress signals into appropriate responses so that plants can adapt and survive. To examine the function of MAPKs in the drought tolerance of tomato plants, we silenced the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 genes in wild-type plants using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) method. The results indicate that silencing the individual genes or co-silencing SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 reduced the drought tolerance of tomato plants by varying degrees. Co-silencing SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 impaired abscisic acid (ABA)-induced and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced stomatal closure and enhanced ABA-induced H2O2 production. Similar results were observed when silencing SpMPK3 alone, but not when SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 were individually silenced. These data suggest that the functions of SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 are redundant, and they overlap with that of SpMPK3 in drought stress signaling pathways. In addition, we found that SpMPK3 may regulate H2O2 levels by mediating the expression of CAT1. Hence, SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 may play crucial roles in enhancing tomato plants’ drought tolerance by influencing stomatal activity and H2O2 production via the ABA-H2O2 pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Albuminuria with Cardiovascular Risk in Occupational Drivers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21997-22010; doi:10.3390/ijms141121997
Received: 29 July 2013 / Revised: 25 October 2013 / Accepted: 29 October 2013 / Published: 6 November 2013
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Abstract
Background and Aim: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and albuminuria increase cardiovascular risk. However, in occupational drivers, the clinical significance of albuminuria and its association with MetS remain unclear. We investigated the prevalence of MetS, albuminuria and cardiovascular risk, and its associated risk factors
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Background and Aim: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and albuminuria increase cardiovascular risk. However, in occupational drivers, the clinical significance of albuminuria and its association with MetS remain unclear. We investigated the prevalence of MetS, albuminuria and cardiovascular risk, and its associated risk factors in occupational drivers; Methods: 441 occupational drivers and 432 age- and sex-stratified matched counterpart controls were enrolled. MetS was defined using Adult Treatment Panel III for Asians. Albuminuria was defined as urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g. Cardiovascular disease risk was evaluated by Framingham Risk Score (FRS); Results: A significantly higher prevalence of MetS (43.1% vs. 25.5%, p < 0.001), albuminuria (12.0% vs. 5.6%, p = 0.001) and high FRS risk ≥ 10% of 10-year risk (46.9% vs. 35.2%, p < 0.001) was found in occupational drivers compared with their counterpart controls. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that old age, a history of diabetes, gout and betel nut chewing, less exercise and albuminuria (odds ratio [OR], 2.75; p = 0.01) were risk factors for MetS, while a history of renal disease, diabetes and hypertension, and MetS (OR, 2.28; p = 0.01) were risk factors for albuminuria in occupational drivers; Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that MetS and albuminuria were public health problems in occupational drivers. An education program for promoting healthy lifestyle and a regular occupational health visit for early detection and interventions should be established. Full article
Open AccessArticle Defective Generation and Maturation of Dendritic Cells from Monocytes in Colorectal Cancer Patients during the Course of Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22022-22041; doi:10.3390/ijms141122022
Received: 14 August 2013 / Revised: 9 October 2013 / Accepted: 17 October 2013 / Published: 7 November 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (424 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Western countries. Today, the role of the host’s immune system in controlling the progression and spread of solid tumors is broadly established. Tumor immunosurveillance escape mechanisms, such as those involving dendritic cells
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Western countries. Today, the role of the host’s immune system in controlling the progression and spread of solid tumors is broadly established. Tumor immunosurveillance escape mechanisms, such as those involving dendritic cells (DCs), the most important antigen-presenting cells, are likewise recognized processes involved in cancer. The present study evaluates the ability of CRC patients to generate DCs in vitro from circulating monocytes at both pre- and post-operative timepoints; the results are correlated with the stage of disease to shed light on the systemic immune statuses of CRC patients. Our data showed that patients’ DCs had lower co-stimulatory molecule expression and were less able to present antigens to allogeneic T cells compared to healthy controls’ (HC) DCs. Furthermore altered cytokine secretion, such as increased IL-10 and reduced IL-12 and TNF-α, was observed. At the post-operative timepoints we observed a recovery of the patients’ ability to generate immature DCs, compared to HCs, but the maturational capacity remained affected. Our study conclusively highlights the persistently impaired in vitro generation of fully mature and functional DCs, which appears to be more altered during advanced stages. This work sheds light on a dendritic cell-based tumor immune escape mechanism that could be useful for the development of more effective immunotherapeutic strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis and Prevention of Colorectal Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Impact of Cold Ischemia on Mitochondrial Function in Porcine Hearts and Blood Vessels
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22042-22051; doi:10.3390/ijms141122042
Received: 16 August 2013 / Revised: 28 October 2013 / Accepted: 30 October 2013 / Published: 7 November 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of cold storage using Custodiol® (Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate, HTK) or isotonic saline solution on mitochondrial function in hearts (left and rights ventricles) and various blood vessels of pigs were investigated. Hearts, saphenous veins, internal-mammary-arteries and aortas of male landrace pigs were harvested
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The effects of cold storage using Custodiol® (Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate, HTK) or isotonic saline solution on mitochondrial function in hearts (left and rights ventricles) and various blood vessels of pigs were investigated. Hearts, saphenous veins, internal-mammary-arteries and aortas of male landrace pigs were harvested and exposed to cold ischemia in either saline or Custodiol-HTK solution. Mitochondrial function was measured in situ in permeabilized fibers by high-resolution respirometry. Mitochondrial respiratory capacities (maximal respiration rates) were similar in the right and left ventricle in controls and after 14 h of cold storage were significantly better preserved in Custodiol-HTK than in saline solution. Mitochondrial respiration rates in various blood vessels including aorta, arteries and veins were less than 5% of myocardium rates. In contrast to the pig heart, in some blood vessels, like veins, mitochondrial function remained stable even after 24 h of cold ischemia. HTK-Custodiol protection of mitochondrial function after prolonged cold ischemia was observed in the myocardium but not in blood vessels. HTK-Custodiol solution thus offers significant protection of myocardial mitochondria against cold ischemic injury and can be used as efficient preservation solution in organ transplantation but probably has no benefit for blood vessels preservation. Analysis of mitochondrial function can be used as a valuable approach for the assessment of cold ischemic injury in various tissues including pig heart and various blood vessels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease)
Open AccessArticle Isolation, Expression, and Characterization of a Hydroperoxide Lyase Gene from Cucumber
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22082-22101; doi:10.3390/ijms141122082
Received: 22 July 2013 / Revised: 11 October 2013 / Accepted: 14 October 2013 / Published: 7 November 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (588 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A full-length cDNA coding for hydroperoxide lyase (CsHPL) was isolated from cucumber fruits of No. 26 (Southern China type) and No.14-1 (Northern China type), which differed significantly in fruit flavor. The deduced amino acid sequences of CsHPL from both lines show
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A full-length cDNA coding for hydroperoxide lyase (CsHPL) was isolated from cucumber fruits of No. 26 (Southern China type) and No.14-1 (Northern China type), which differed significantly in fruit flavor. The deduced amino acid sequences of CsHPL from both lines show the same and significant similarity to known plant HPLs and contain typical conserved domains of HPLs. The recombinant CsHPL was confirmed to have 9/13-HPL enzymatic activity. Gene expression levels of CsHPL were measured in different organs, especially in fruits of different development stages of both lines. The HPL activities of fruit were identified basing on the catalytic action of crude enzyme extracts incubating with 13-HPOD (13-hydroperoxy-(9Z,12E)-octadecadienoic acid) and 13-HPOD + 9-HPOD (9-hydroperoxy-(10E,12Z)-octadecadienoic acid), and volatile reaction products were analyzed by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). CsHPL gene expression in No. 26 fruit occurred earlier than that of total HPL enzyme activity and 13-HPL enzyme activity, and that in No. 14-1 fruit was consistent with total HPL enzyme activity and 9-HPL enzyme activity. 13-HPL enzyme activities decreased significantly and the 9-HPL enzyme activities increased significantly with fruit ripening in both lines, which accounted for the higher content of C6 aldehydes at 0–6 day post-anthesis (dpa) and higher content of C9 aldehydes at 9–12 dpa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle SEPT12-Microtubule Complexes Are Required for Sperm Head and Tail Formation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22102-22116; doi:10.3390/ijms141122102
Received: 6 September 2013 / Revised: 26 September 2013 / Accepted: 26 September 2013 / Published: 7 November 2013
PDF Full-text (2561 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The septin gene belongs to a highly conserved family of polymerizing GTP-binding cytoskeletal proteins. SEPTs perform cytoskeletal remodeling, cell polarity, mitosis, and vesicle trafficking by interacting with various cytoskeletons. Our previous studies have indicated that SEPTIN12+/+/+/− chimeras with a
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The septin gene belongs to a highly conserved family of polymerizing GTP-binding cytoskeletal proteins. SEPTs perform cytoskeletal remodeling, cell polarity, mitosis, and vesicle trafficking by interacting with various cytoskeletons. Our previous studies have indicated that SEPTIN12+/+/+/− chimeras with a SEPTIN12 mutant allele were infertile. Spermatozoa from the vas deferens of chimeric mice indicated an abnormal sperm morphology, decreased sperm count, and immotile sperm. Mutations and genetic variants of SEPTIN12 in infertility cases also caused oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia. We suggest that a loss of SEPT12 affects the biological function of microtublin functions and causes spermiogenesis defects. In the cell model, SEPT12 interacts with α- and β-tubulins by co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP). To determine the precise localization and interactions between SEPT12 and α- and β-tubulins in vivo, we created SEPTIN12-transgene mice. We demonstrate how SEPT12 interacts and co-localizes with α- and β-tubulins during spermiogenesis in these mice. By using shRNA, the loss of SEPT12 transcripts disrupts α- and β-tubulin organization. In addition, losing or decreasing SEPT12 disturbs the morphogenesis of sperm heads and the elongation of sperm tails, the steps of which are coordinated and constructed by α- and β-tubulins, in SEPTIN12+/+/+/− chimeras. In this study, we discovered that the SEPTIN12-microtubule complexes are critical for sperm formation during spermiogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle AlPOs Synthetic Factor Analysis Based on Maximum Weight and Minimum Redundancy Feature Selection
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22132-22148; doi:10.3390/ijms141122132
Received: 25 September 2013 / Revised: 23 October 2013 / Accepted: 23 October 2013 / Published: 8 November 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (968 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The relationship between synthetic factors and the resulting structures is critical for rational synthesis of zeolites and related microporous materials. In this paper, we develop a new feature selection method for synthetic factor analysis of (6,12)-ring-containing microporous aluminophosphates (AlPOs). The proposed method is
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The relationship between synthetic factors and the resulting structures is critical for rational synthesis of zeolites and related microporous materials. In this paper, we develop a new feature selection method for synthetic factor analysis of (6,12)-ring-containing microporous aluminophosphates (AlPOs). The proposed method is based on a maximum weight and minimum redundancy criterion. With the proposed method, we can select the feature subset in which the features are most relevant to the synthetic structure while the redundancy among these selected features is minimal. Based on the database of AlPO synthesis, we use (6,12)-ring-containing AlPOs as the target class and incorporate 21 synthetic factors including gel composition, solvent and organic template to predict the formation of (6,12)-ring-containing microporous aluminophosphates (AlPOs). From these 21 features, 12 selected features are deemed as the optimized features to distinguish (6,12)-ring-containing AlPOs from other AlPOs without such rings. The prediction model achieves a classification accuracy rate of 91.12% using the optimal feature subset. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, and deep analysis is given for the synthetic factors selected by the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle The Protective Effect of Bcl-xl Overexpression against Oxidative Stress-Induced Vascular Endothelial Cell Injury and the Role of the Akt/eNOS Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22149-22162; doi:10.3390/ijms141122149
Received: 21 September 2013 / Revised: 26 October 2013 / Accepted: 30 October 2013 / Published: 8 November 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1704 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Restenosis after intraluminal or open vascular reconstruction remains an important clinical problem. Vascular endothelial cell (EC) injury induced by oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of intimal hyperplasia. In this study, we sought to evaluate the protective effects of Bcl-xl
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Restenosis after intraluminal or open vascular reconstruction remains an important clinical problem. Vascular endothelial cell (EC) injury induced by oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of intimal hyperplasia. In this study, we sought to evaluate the protective effects of Bcl-xl overexpression in vitro on oxidative stress-induced EC injury and the role of the Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) pathway. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 0.5 mM) were used as the experimental oxidative stress model. The Bcl-xl gene was transferred into HUVECs through recombinant adenovirus vector pAdxsi-GFP-Bcl-xl before oxidative treatment. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V/propidium iodide and Hoechst staining, caspase-7 and PARP cleavage. Cell viability was assessed using the cell counting kit-8 assay, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunocytochemical detection and the scratching assay. Expressions of Akt, phospho-Akt and eNOS were detected by Western blotting. Our results showed that H2O2 induced apoptosis and decreased the cell viability of HUVECs. Bcl-xl overexpression significantly protected cells from H2O2-induced cell damage and apoptosis and maintained the cell function. Furthermore, the level of phospho-Akt and eNOS protein expression was significantly elevated when pretreated with Bcl-xl gene transferring. These findings suggest that Bcl-xl overexpression exerts an anti-apoptotic and protective effect on EC function. The Akt/eNOS signaling pathway is probably involved in these processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle The ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway Is Involved in Sulfur Dioxide Preconditioning-Induced Protection against Cardiac Dysfunction in Isolated Perfused Rat Heart Subjected to Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22190-22201; doi:10.3390/ijms141122190
Received: 12 August 2013 / Revised: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 1 November 2013 / Published: 8 November 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (948 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) occurs frequently during reperfusion of ischemic myocardium, and preconditioning has been regarded as one of the best strategies to prevent myocardial injury during the ischemia/reperfusion process. Our previous studies indicated that a small dose of sulfur dioxide (SO2)
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Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) occurs frequently during reperfusion of ischemic myocardium, and preconditioning has been regarded as one of the best strategies to prevent myocardial injury during the ischemia/reperfusion process. Our previous studies indicated that a small dose of sulfur dioxide (SO2) used as preconditioning exerts cardioprotection. However, the mechanisms underlying the cardioprotection remain unclear. The present study was designed to examine if the extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway mediated protection against cardiac dysfunction after SO2 preconditioning in isolated rat hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Langendorff heart perfusion was performed in vitro, where 56 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: control group, 5 μmol/L SO2 group (S5), 2-(2-Amino-3-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (PD98059) + 5 μmol/L SO2 (PD98059 + S5) group, PD98059 group, I/R group, 5 μmol/L SO2 + I/R (S5 + I/R) group and PD98059 + 5 μmol/L SO2 + I/R (PD98059 + S5 + I/R) group. Cardiac function and myocardial phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein were measured. We found that I/R in isolated rat heart resulted in cardiac dysfunction with a significant increase in phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein. SO2 preconditioning markedly suppressed phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein and improved cardiac function in isolated rat heart with I/R (p < 0.05). However, pre-treatment with PD98059 could prevent the above effects of SO2 preconditioning. In conclusion, SO2 preconditioning protected against cardiac dysfunction in isolated rat heart subjected to I/R via suppression of the over-activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Combination BMSC and Niaspan Treatment of Stroke Enhances White Matter Remodeling and Synaptic Protein Expression in Diabetic Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22221-22232; doi:10.3390/ijms141122221
Received: 1 August 2013 / Revised: 16 October 2013 / Accepted: 18 October 2013 / Published: 11 November 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: White matter remodeling plays an important role in neurological recovery after stroke. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and Niaspan, an agent which increases high density lipoprotein (HDL), each induces neurorestorative effects and promotes white matter remodeling after stroke in non-diabetic rats. In
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Objective: White matter remodeling plays an important role in neurological recovery after stroke. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and Niaspan, an agent which increases high density lipoprotein (HDL), each induces neurorestorative effects and promotes white matter remodeling after stroke in non-diabetic rats. In this study, we test whether combination of BMSCs with Niaspan induces an enhanced white matter remodeling in the ischemic brain of diabetic rats. Research design and methods: Type-1 diabetes (T1DM) rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) and treated with or without BMSCs; Niaspan; and the combination of BMSCs + Niaspan daily for 14 days after MCAo. Immunostaining for white matter remodeling and synaptic protein expression including NG2; CNPase; BS (Bielschowsky silver); LFB (luxol fast blue); Synaptophysin and SMI-31 immunostaining were performed. Results: BMSC monotherapy did not regulate NG2 and CNPase expression compared to T1DM control rats. Both, combination of BMSCs + Niaspan treatment, and Niaspan monotherapy significantly increase NG2 and CNPase expression compared to T1DM control. While combination BMSC+Niaspan, BMSC monotherapy and Niaspan monotherapy groups all increase BS, LFB, synaptophysin, and SMI-31 expression in the ischemic brain compared to T1DM-MCAo control. In addition, the combination treatment significantly enhances LFB, SMI-31, and Synaptophysin expression compared to BMSC monotherapy. Conclusions: Combination treatment of stroke with BMSCs and Niaspan in T1DM rats increases white matter remodeling and additively increases BMSC monotherapy induced myelination and synaptic plasticity after stroke in T1DM rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathology and Treatment of Central Nervous System Diseases)
Open AccessArticle Galectin-1 Is an Interactive Protein of Selenoprotein M in the Brain
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22233-22245; doi:10.3390/ijms141122233
Received: 4 September 2013 / Revised: 24 October 2013 / Accepted: 24 October 2013 / Published: 11 November 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2545 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Selenium, an essential trace element for human health, mainly exerts its biological function through selenoproteins. Selenoprotein M (SelM) is one of the highly expressed selenoproteins in the brain, but its biological effect and molecular mechanism remain unclear. Thus, the interactive protein of SelM
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Selenium, an essential trace element for human health, mainly exerts its biological function through selenoproteins. Selenoprotein M (SelM) is one of the highly expressed selenoproteins in the brain, but its biological effect and molecular mechanism remain unclear. Thus, the interactive protein of SelM was investigated in this paper to guide further study. In order to avoid protein translational stop, the selenocysteine-encoding UGA inside the open reading frame of SelM was site-directly changed to the cysteine-encoding UGC to generate the SelM' mutant. Meanwhile, its N terminal transmembrane signal peptide was also cut off. This truncated SelM' was used to screen a human fetal brain cDNA library by the yeast two-hybrid system. A new interactive protein of SelM' was found to be galectin-1 (Gal-1). This protein-protein interaction was further verified by the results of fluorescence resonance energy transfer techniques, glutathione S-transferase pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. As Gal-1 plays important roles in preventing neurodegeneration and promoting neuroprotection in the brain, the interaction between SelM' and Gal-1 displays a new direction for studying the biological function of SelM in the human brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Control of Metabolism)
Open AccessArticle Environmental Enrichment Decreases Asphyxia-Induced Neurobehavioral Developmental Delay in Neonatal Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22258-22273; doi:10.3390/ijms141122258
Received: 14 September 2013 / Revised: 18 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 13 November 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (534 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim
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Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enriched environment is able to decrease the asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats. Asphyxia was induced in ready-to-deliver mothers by removing the pups by caesarian section after 15 min of asphyxia. Somatic and neurobehavioral development was tested daily and motor coordination weekly. Our results show that rats undergoing perinatal asphyxia had a marked developmental delay and worse performance in motor coordination tests. However, pups kept in enriched environment showed a decrease in the developmental delay observed in control asphyctic pups. Rats growing up in enriched environment did not show decrease in weight gain after the first week and the delay in reflex appearance was not as marked as in control rats. In addition, the development of motor coordination was not as strikingly delayed as in the control group. Short-term neurofunctional outcome are known to correlate with long-term deficits. Our results thus show that enriched environment could be a powerful strategy to decrease the deleterious developmental effects of perinatal asphyxia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2014)
Open AccessArticle Acidic Residue Glu199 Increases SUMOylation Level of Nuclear Hormone Receptor NR5A1
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22331-22345; doi:10.3390/ijms141122331
Received: 9 October 2013 / Revised: 1 November 2013 / Accepted: 5 November 2013 / Published: 13 November 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (356 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Steroidogenic factor 1 (NR5A1/SF1) is a well-known master regulator in controlling adrenal and sexual development, as well as regulating numerous genes involved in adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis. Several studies including ours have demonstrated that NR5A1 can be SUMOylated on lysine 194 (K194, the
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Steroidogenic factor 1 (NR5A1/SF1) is a well-known master regulator in controlling adrenal and sexual development, as well as regulating numerous genes involved in adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis. Several studies including ours have demonstrated that NR5A1 can be SUMOylated on lysine 194 (K194, the major site) and lysine 119 (K119, the minor site), and the cycle of SUMOylation regulates NR5A1’s transcriptional activity. An extended consensus negatively charged amino acid-dependent SUMOylation motif (NDSM) enhances the specificity of substrate modification by SUMO has been reported; however, the mechanism of NDSM for NR5A1 remains to be clarified. In this study, we investigated the functional significance of the acidic residue located downstream from the core consensus SUMO site of NR5A1. Here we report that E199A (glutamic acid was replaced with alanine) of NR5A1 reduced, but not completely abolished, its SUMOylation level. We next characterized the functional role of NR5A1 E199A on target gene expression and protein levels. We found that E199A alone, as well as combination with K194R, increased Mc2r and Cyp19a1 reporter activities. Moreover, E199A alone as well as combination with K194R enhanced NR5A1-mediated STAR protein levels in mouse adrenocortical cancer Y1 cells. We also observed that E199A increased interaction of NR5A1 with CDK7 and SRC1. Overall, we provide the evidence that the acidic residue (E199) located downstream from the core consensus SUMO site of NR5A1 is, at least in part, required for SUMOylation of NR5A1 and for its mediated target gene and protein expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Proteins and Protein-Ligand Interactions)
Open AccessArticle Comparative Analysis of Flower Volatiles from Nine Citrus at Three Blooming Stages
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22346-22367; doi:10.3390/ijms141122346
Received: 14 October 2013 / Revised: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 1 November 2013 / Published: 13 November 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1071 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Volatiles from flowers at three blooming stages of nine citrus cultivars were analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-GC-MS. Up to 110 volatiles were detected, with 42 tentatively identified from citrus flowers for the first time. Highest amounts of volatiles were present in fully
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Volatiles from flowers at three blooming stages of nine citrus cultivars were analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-GC-MS. Up to 110 volatiles were detected, with 42 tentatively identified from citrus flowers for the first time. Highest amounts of volatiles were present in fully opened flowers of most citrus, except for pomelos. All cultivars were characterized by a high percentage of either oxygenated monoterpenes or monoterpene hydrocarbons, and the presence of a high percentage of nitrogen containing compounds was also observed. Flower volatiles varied qualitatively and quantitatively among citrus types during blooming. Limonene was the most abundant flower volatile only in citrons; α-citral and β-citral ranked 2nd and 3rd only for Bergamot, and unopened flowers of Ponkan had a higher amount of linalool and β-pinene while much lower amount of γ-terpinene and p-cymene than Satsuma. Taking the average of all cultivars, linalool and limonene were the top two volatiles for all blooming stages; β-pinene ranked 3rd in unopened flowers, while indole ranked 3rd for half opened and fully opened flower volatiles. As flowers bloomed, methyl anthranilate increased while 2-hexenal and p-cymene decreased. In some cases, a volatile could be high in both unopened and fully opened flowers but low in half opened ones. Through multivariate analysis, the nine citrus cultivars were clustered into three groups, consistent with the three true citrus types. Furthermore, an influence of blooming stages on clustering was observed, especially with hybrids Satsuma and Huyou. Altogether, it was suggested that flower volatiles can be suitable markers for revealing the genetic relationships between citrus cultivars but the same blooming stage needs to be strictly controlled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Open AccessArticle Supramolecular Luminescence from Oligofluorenol-Based Supramolecular Polymer Semiconductors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22368-22379; doi:10.3390/ijms141122368
Received: 29 August 2013 / Revised: 21 October 2013 / Accepted: 29 October 2013 / Published: 13 November 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (646 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Supramolecular luminescence stems from non-covalent exciton behaviors of active π-segments in supramolecular entities or aggregates via intermolecular forces. Herein, a π-conjugated oligofluorenol, containing self-complementary double hydrogen bonds, was synthesized using Suzuki coupling as a supramolecular semiconductor. Terfluorenol-based random supramolecular polymers were confirmed via
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Supramolecular luminescence stems from non-covalent exciton behaviors of active π-segments in supramolecular entities or aggregates via intermolecular forces. Herein, a π-conjugated oligofluorenol, containing self-complementary double hydrogen bonds, was synthesized using Suzuki coupling as a supramolecular semiconductor. Terfluorenol-based random supramolecular polymers were confirmed via concentration-dependent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The photoluminescent spectra of the TFOH-1 solution exhibit a green emission band (g-band) at approximately ~520 nm with reversible features, as confirmed through titration experiments. Supramolecular luminescence of TFOH-1 thin films serves as robust evidence for the aggregates of g-band. Our results suggest that the presence of polyfluorene ketone defects is a sufficient condition, rather than a sufficient-necessary condition for the g-band. Supramolecular electroluminescence will push organic devices into the fields of supramolecular optoelectronics, spintronics, and mechatronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Supramolecular Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Superior Mechanical Properties of Double-Network Hydrogels Reinforced by Carbon Nanotubes without Organic Modification
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22380-22394; doi:10.3390/ijms141122380
Received: 23 September 2013 / Revised: 22 October 2013 / Accepted: 30 October 2013 / Published: 13 November 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (4423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A facile method is developed to fabricate nanocomposite double-network (DN) gels with excellent mechanical properties, which do not fracture upon loading up to 78 MPa and a strain above 0.98, by compositing of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) without organic modification. Investigations of swelling behaviors,
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A facile method is developed to fabricate nanocomposite double-network (DN) gels with excellent mechanical properties, which do not fracture upon loading up to 78 MPa and a strain above 0.98, by compositing of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) without organic modification. Investigations of swelling behaviors, and compressive and tensile properties indicate that equilibrium swelling ratio, compressive modulus and stress, fracture stress, Young’s modulus, and yield stress are significantly improved in the presence of CNTs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals that the pore size of nanocomposite DN gels is decreased and some embedded micro-network structures are observed on the fracture surface in comparison to DN gels without CNTs, which leads to the enhancement of mechanical properties. The compressive loading-unloading behaviors show that the area of hysteresis loop, dissipated energy, for the first compressive cycle, increases with addition of CNTs, which is much higher than that for the successive cycles. Furthermore, the energy dissipation mechanism, similar to the Mullins effect observed in filled rubbers, is demonstrated for better understanding the nanocomposite DN polymer gels with CNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences and Nanotechnology)
Open AccessArticle New Benzo[c]phenanthridine and Benzenoid Derivatives, and Other Constituents from Zanthoxylum ailanthoides: Effects on Neutrophil Pro-Inflammatory Responses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22395-22408; doi:10.3390/ijms141122395
Received: 6 August 2013 / Revised: 24 October 2013 / Accepted: 25 October 2013 / Published: 13 November 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (395 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new benzo[c]phenanthridine, oxynorchelerythrine (1), and two new benzenoid derivatives, methyl 4-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3-methyl-4-oxobutoxy)benzoate (2) and (E)-methyl 4-(4-((Z)-3-methoxy-3-oxoprop-1-enyl)phenoxy)-2-methylbut-2-enoate (3), have been isolated from the twigs of Zanthoxylum ailanthoides, together with 11 known
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A new benzo[c]phenanthridine, oxynorchelerythrine (1), and two new benzenoid derivatives, methyl 4-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3-methyl-4-oxobutoxy)benzoate (2) and (E)-methyl 4-(4-((Z)-3-methoxy-3-oxoprop-1-enyl)phenoxy)-2-methylbut-2-enoate (3), have been isolated from the twigs of Zanthoxylum ailanthoides, together with 11 known compounds (414). The structures of these new compounds were determined through spectroscopic and MS analyses. Among the isolated compounds, decarine (4), (−)-syringaresinol (6), (+)-episesamin (8), glaberide I (9), (−)-dihydrocubebin (10), and xanthyletin (11) exhibited potent inhibition (IC50 values ≤ 4.79 µg/mL) of superoxide anion generation by human nutrophils in response to N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine/cytochalasin B (fMLP/CB). Compounds 4, 8, and 11 also inhibited fMLP/CB-induced elastase release with IC50 values ≤ 5.48 µg/mL. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fluorescence Intrinsic Characterization of Excitation-Emission Matrix Using Multi-Dimensional Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22436-22448; doi:10.3390/ijms141122436
Received: 19 July 2013 / Revised: 4 November 2013 / Accepted: 6 November 2013 / Published: 14 November 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy is a noninvasive method for tissue diagnosis and has become important in clinical use. However, the intrinsic characterization of EEM fluorescence remains unclear. Photobleaching and the complexity of the chemical compounds make it difficult to distinguish individual compounds
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Excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy is a noninvasive method for tissue diagnosis and has become important in clinical use. However, the intrinsic characterization of EEM fluorescence remains unclear. Photobleaching and the complexity of the chemical compounds make it difficult to distinguish individual compounds due to overlapping features. Conventional studies use principal component analysis (PCA) for EEM fluorescence analysis, and the relationship between the EEM features extracted by PCA and diseases has been examined. The spectral features of different tissue constituents are not fully separable or clearly defined. Recently, a non-stationary method called multi-dimensional ensemble empirical mode decomposition (MEEMD) was introduced; this method can extract the intrinsic oscillations on multiple spatial scales without loss of information. The aim of this study was to propose a fluorescence spectroscopy system for EEM measurements and to describe a method for extracting the intrinsic characteristics of EEM by MEEMD. The results indicate that, although PCA provides the principal factor for the spectral features associated with chemical compounds, MEEMD can provide additional intrinsic features with more reliable mapping of the chemical compounds. MEEMD has the potential to extract intrinsic fluorescence features and improve the detection of biochemical changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Micro-Spectroscopy in Biological Applications)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Comet Assay for Assessing the Dose-Response Relationship of DNA Damage Induced by Ionizing Radiation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22449-22461; doi:10.3390/ijms141122449
Received: 4 September 2013 / Revised: 25 October 2013 / Accepted: 30 October 2013 / Published: 14 November 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (801 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dose- and time-response curves were combined to assess the potential of the comet assay in radiation biodosimetry. The neutral comet assay was used to detect DNA double-strand breaks in lymphocytes caused by γ-ray irradiation. A clear dose-response relationship with DNA double-strand breaks using
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Dose- and time-response curves were combined to assess the potential of the comet assay in radiation biodosimetry. The neutral comet assay was used to detect DNA double-strand breaks in lymphocytes caused by γ-ray irradiation. A clear dose-response relationship with DNA double-strand breaks using the comet assay was found at different times after irradiation (p < 0.001). A time-response relationship was also found within 72 h after irradiation (p < 0.001). The curves for DNA double-strand breaks and DNA repair in vitro of human lymphocytes presented a nice model, and a smooth, three-dimensional plane model was obtained when the two curves were combined. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Radiation Toxicity in Cells)
Open AccessArticle Cloning, Characterization and Effect of TmPGRP-LE Gene Silencing on Survival of Tenebrio Molitor against Listeria monocytogenes Infection
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22462-22482; doi:10.3390/ijms141122462
Received: 6 September 2013 / Revised: 16 October 2013 / Accepted: 30 October 2013 / Published: 14 November 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are a family of innate immune molecules that recognize bacterial peptidoglycan. PGRP-LE, a member of the PGRP family, selectively binds to diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-type peptidoglycan to activate both the immune deficiency (Imd) and proPhenoloxidase (proPO) pathways in insects. A
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Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are a family of innate immune molecules that recognize bacterial peptidoglycan. PGRP-LE, a member of the PGRP family, selectively binds to diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-type peptidoglycan to activate both the immune deficiency (Imd) and proPhenoloxidase (proPO) pathways in insects. A PGRP-LE-dependent induction of autophagy to control Listeria monocytogenes has also been reported. We identified and partially characterized a novel PGRP-LE homologue, from Tenebrio molitor and analyzed its functional role in the survival of the insect against infection by a DAP-type PGN containing intracellular pathogen, L. monocytogenes. The cDNA is comprised of an open reading frame (ORF) of 990 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 329 residues. TmPGRP-LE contains one PGRP domain, but lacks critical residues for amidase activity. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed a broad constitutive expression of the transcript at various stages of development spanning from larva to adult. RNAi mediated knockdown of the transcripts, followed by a challenge with L. monocytogenes, showed a significant reduction in survival rate of the larvae, suggesting a putative role of TmPGRP-LE in sensing and control of L. monocytogenes infection in T. molitor. These results implicate PGRP-LE as a defense protein necessary for survival of T. molitor against infection by L. monocytogenes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Open AccessArticle Synthetic Resveratrol Analogue, 3,3',4,4',5,5'-Hexahydroxy-trans-Stilbene, Accelerates Senescence in Peritoneal Mesothelium and Promotes Senescence-Dependent Growth of Gastrointestinal Cancers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22483-22498; doi:10.3390/ijms141122483
Received: 26 August 2013 / Revised: 18 October 2013 / Accepted: 1 November 2013 / Published: 14 November 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (761 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
3,3',4,4',5,5'-Hexahydroxy-trans-stilbene (M8) is a synthetic resveratrol derivative, advertised as a candidate drug highly effective against numerous malignancies. Because multiple tumors prone to M8 frequently metastasize into the peritoneal cavity, this study was aimed at establishing the effect of M8 on the
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3,3',4,4',5,5'-Hexahydroxy-trans-stilbene (M8) is a synthetic resveratrol derivative, advertised as a candidate drug highly effective against numerous malignancies. Because multiple tumors prone to M8 frequently metastasize into the peritoneal cavity, this study was aimed at establishing the effect of M8 on the growth and senescence of human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs), the largest cell population within the peritoneum, actively involved in the intraperitoneal spread of cancer. The study showed that M8, used at the highest non-toxic dose of 10 μM, impairs proliferation and accelerates senescence in cultured HPMCs via an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. At the same time, soluble factors released to the environment by HPMCs that senesced prematurely in response to M8 promoted growth of colorectal and pancreatic carcinomas in vitro. These findings indicate that M8 may indirectly—through the modification of normal (mesothelial) cells phenotype—facilitate an expansion of cancer cells, which challenges the postulated value of this stilbene in chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Programmed Cell Death and Apoptosis)
Open AccessArticle Size-Dependent Cytotoxicity of Nanocarbon Blacks
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22529-22543; doi:10.3390/ijms141122529
Received: 22 September 2013 / Revised: 25 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 14 November 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1584 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of nanocarbon blacks (NCBs) with different sizes to mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. MTT and fluorescence-based LIVE assays demonstrated that NCBs uptake caused a size and dose-dependent growth inhibition to the cells. Optical microscopy observations and
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In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of nanocarbon blacks (NCBs) with different sizes to mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. MTT and fluorescence-based LIVE assays demonstrated that NCBs uptake caused a size and dose-dependent growth inhibition to the cells. Optical microscopy observations and 99mTc radionuclide labeling techniques were used to investigate the cellular uptake of NCBs with different sizes qualitatively and quantitatively, respectively. Results showed that the cellular uptake amounts of NCBs increased with their increasing size. Large quantities of internal NCBs induced oxidative stress and nuclear damage in cells; these effects may be the critical factors involved in the cytotoxicity of NCBs. The implications associated with these findings are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2013)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of 2-Acyloxycyclohexylsulfonamides and Evaluation on Their Fungicidal Activity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22544-22557; doi:10.3390/ijms141122544
Received: 8 October 2013 / Revised: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 4 November 2013 / Published: 14 November 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (726 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Eighteen N-substituted phenyl-2-acyloxycyclohexylsulfonamides (III) were designed and synthesized by the reaction of N-substituted phenyl-2-hydroxyl- cycloalkylsulfonamides (I, R1) with acyl chloride (II, R2) in dichloromethane under the catalysis of TMEDA and molecular
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Eighteen N-substituted phenyl-2-acyloxycyclohexylsulfonamides (III) were designed and synthesized by the reaction of N-substituted phenyl-2-hydroxyl- cycloalkylsulfonamides (I, R1) with acyl chloride (II, R2) in dichloromethane under the catalysis of TMEDA and molecular sieve. High fungicidal active compound N-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl)-2-(2-ethoxyacetoxy) cyclohexylsulfonamide (III-18) was screened out. Mycelia growth assay against the Botrytis cinerea exhibited that EC50 and EC80 of compound III-18 were 4.17 and 17.15 μg mL−1 respectively, which was better than the commercial fungicide procymidone (EC50 = 4.46 μg mL−1 and EC80 = 35.02 μg mL−1). For in vivo activity against B. cinerea in living leaf of cucumber, the control effect of compound III-18 was better than the fungicide cyprodinil. In addition, this new compound had broader fungicidal spectra than chlorothalonil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Open AccessArticle Thermal Stability Threshold for Amyloid Formation in Light Chain Amyloidosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22604-22617; doi:10.3390/ijms141122604
Received: 1 October 2013 / Revised: 25 October 2013 / Accepted: 4 November 2013 / Published: 15 November 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a devastating disease characterized by amyloid deposits formed by immunoglobulin light chains. Current available treatments involve conventional chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant. We have recently concluded a phase III trial comparing these two treatments. AL amyloidosis patients
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Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a devastating disease characterized by amyloid deposits formed by immunoglobulin light chains. Current available treatments involve conventional chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant. We have recently concluded a phase III trial comparing these two treatments. AL amyloidosis patients who achieve hematological complete response (CR) do not necessarily achieve organ response regardless of the treatment they received. In order to investigate the possible correlation between amyloid formation kinetics and organ response, we selected AL amyloidosis patients from the trial with kidney involvement and CR after treatment. Six patients were selected and their monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains were characterized. The proteins showed differences in their stability and their kinetics of amyloid formation. A correlation was detected at pH 7.4, showing that less stable proteins are more likely to form amyloid fibrils. AL-T03 is too unstable to form amyloid fibrils at pH 7.4. This protein was found in the only patient in the study that had organ response, suggesting that partially folded species are required for amyloid formation to occur in AL amyloidosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Protein Folding)
Open AccessArticle Onjisaponin B Derived from Radix Polygalae Enhances Autophagy and Accelerates the Degradation of Mutant α-Synuclein and Huntingtin in PC-12 Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22618-22641; doi:10.3390/ijms141122618
Received: 3 September 2013 / Revised: 28 October 2013 / Accepted: 30 October 2013 / Published: 15 November 2013
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (1452 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Emerging evidence indicates important protective roles being played by autophagy in neurodegenerative disorders through clearance of aggregate-prone or mutant proteins. In the current study, we aimed to identify autophagy inducers from Chinese medicinal herbs as a potential neuroprotective agent that enhances the clearance
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Emerging evidence indicates important protective roles being played by autophagy in neurodegenerative disorders through clearance of aggregate-prone or mutant proteins. In the current study, we aimed to identify autophagy inducers from Chinese medicinal herbs as a potential neuroprotective agent that enhances the clearance of mutant huntingtin and α-synuclein in PC-12 cells. Through intensive screening using the green fluorescent protein-light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) autophagy detection platform, we found that the ethanol extracts of Radix Polygalae (Yuan Zhi) were capable of inducing autophagy. Further investigation showed that among three single components derived from Radix Polygalaei.e., polygalacic acid, senegenin and onjisaponin B—onjisaponin B was able to induce autophagy and accelerate both the removal of mutant huntingtin and A53T α-synuclein, which are highly associated with Huntington disease and Parkinson disease, respectively. Our study further demonstrated that onjisaponin B induces autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway. Therefore, findings in the current study provide detailed insights into the protective mechanism of a novel autophagy inducer, which is valuable for further investigation as a new candidate agent for modulating neurodegenerative disorders through the reduction of toxicity and clearance of mutant proteins in the cellular level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2014)
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Open AccessArticle HE4 Transcription- and Splice Variants-Specific Expression in Endometrial Cancer and Correlation with Patient Survival
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22655-22677; doi:10.3390/ijms141122655
Received: 16 June 2013 / Revised: 14 October 2013 / Accepted: 15 October 2013 / Published: 18 November 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1010 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We investigated the HE4 variant-specific expression patterns in various normal tissues as well as in normal and malignant endometrial tissues. The relationships between mRNA variants and age, body weight, or survival are analyzed. ICAT-labeled normal and endometrial cancer (EC) tissues were analyzed with
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We investigated the HE4 variant-specific expression patterns in various normal tissues as well as in normal and malignant endometrial tissues. The relationships between mRNA variants and age, body weight, or survival are analyzed. ICAT-labeled normal and endometrial cancer (EC) tissues were analyzed with multidimensional liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry. Levels of HE4 mRNA variants were measured by real-time PCR. Mean mRNA levels were compared among 16 normal endometrial samples, 14 grade 1 and 14 grade 3 endometrioid EC, 15 papillary serous EC, and 14 normal human tissue samples. The relationship between levels of HE4 variants and EC patient characteristics was analyzed with the use of Pearson correlation test. We found that, although all five HE4 mRNA variants are detectable in normal tissue samples, their expression is highly tissue-specific, with epididymis, trachea, breast and endometrium containing the highest levels. HE4-V0, -V1, and -V3 are the most abundant variants in both normal and malignant tissues. All variants are significantly increased in both endometrioid and papillary serous EC, with higher levels observed in grade 3 endometrioid EC. In the EC group, HE4-V1, -V3, and -V4 levels inversely correlate with EC patient survival, whereas HE4-V0 levels positively correlate with age. HE4 variants exhibit tissue-specific expression, suggesting that each variant may exert distinct functions in normal and malignant cells. HE4 levels appear to correlate with EC patient survival in a variant-specific manner. When using HE4 as a biomarker for EC management, the effects of age should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Hyperoside Downregulates the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) and Promotes Proliferation in ECV304 Cells via the c-Jun N-Terminal Kinases (JNK) Pathway Following Stimulation by Advanced Glycation End-Products In Vitro
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22697-22707; doi:10.3390/ijms141122697
Received: 22 September 2013 / Revised: 27 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 November 2013 / Published: 18 November 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (311 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hyperoside is a major active constituent in many medicinal plants which are traditionally used in Chinese medicines for their neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. In this study, quiescent ECV304 cells were treated in vitro with
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Hyperoside is a major active constituent in many medicinal plants which are traditionally used in Chinese medicines for their neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. In this study, quiescent ECV304 cells were treated in vitro with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the presence or absence of hyperoside. The results demonstrated that AGEs induced c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) activation and apoptosis in ECV304 cells. Hyperoside inhibited these effects and promoted ECV304 cell proliferation. Furthermore, hyperoside significantly inhibited RAGE expression in AGE-stimulated ECV304 cells, whereas knockdown of RAGE inhibited AGE-induced JNK activation. These results suggested that AGEs may promote JNK activation, leading to viability inhibition of ECV304 cells via the RAGE signaling pathway. These effects could be inhibited by hyperoside. Our findings suggest a novel role for hyperoside in the treatment and prevention of diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Hsa-Let-7g miRNA Targets Caspase-3 and Inhibits the Apoptosis Induced by ox-LDL in Endothelial Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22708-22720; doi:10.3390/ijms141122708
Received: 14 October 2013 / Revised: 29 October 2013 / Accepted: 1 November 2013 / Published: 18 November 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It has been well confirmed ox-LDL plays key roles in the development of atherosclerosis via binding to LOX-1 and inducing apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells. Recent studies have shown ox-LDL can suppress microRNA has-let-7g, which in turn inhibits the ox-LDL induced apoptosis. However,
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It has been well confirmed ox-LDL plays key roles in the development of atherosclerosis via binding to LOX-1 and inducing apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells. Recent studies have shown ox-LDL can suppress microRNA has-let-7g, which in turn inhibits the ox-LDL induced apoptosis. However, details need to be uncovered. To determine the anti-atherosclerosis effect of microRNA has-let-7g, and to evaluate the possibility of CASP3 as an anti-atherosclerotic drug target by has-let-7g, the present study determined the role of hsa-let-7g miRNA in ox-LDL induced apoptosis in the vascular endothelial cells. We found that miRNA has-let-7g was suppressed during the ox-LDL-induced apoptosis in EAhy926 endothelial cells. In addition, overexpression of has-let-7g negatively regulated apoptosis in the endothelial cells by targeting caspase-3 expression. Therefore, miRNA let-7g may play important role in endothelial apoptosis and atherosclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Genes Responsive to Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound in MC3T3-E1 Preosteoblast Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22721-22740; doi:10.3390/ijms141122721
Received: 16 April 2013 / Revised: 4 July 2013 / Accepted: 6 August 2013 / Published: 18 November 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Although low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been shown to enhance bone fracture healing, the underlying mechanism of LIPUS remains to be fully elucidated. Here, to better understand the molecular mechanism underlying cellular responses to LIPUS, we investigated gene expression profiles in mouse MC3T3-E1
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Although low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been shown to enhance bone fracture healing, the underlying mechanism of LIPUS remains to be fully elucidated. Here, to better understand the molecular mechanism underlying cellular responses to LIPUS, we investigated gene expression profiles in mouse MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells exposed to LIPUS using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays and computational gene expression analysis tools. Although treatment of the cells with a single 20-min LIPUS (1.5 MHz, 30 mW/cm2) did not affect the cell growth or alkaline phosphatase activity, the treatment significantly increased the mRNA level of Bglap. Microarray analysis demonstrated that 38 genes were upregulated and 37 genes were downregulated by 1.5-fold or more in the cells at 24-h post-treatment. Ingenuity pathway analysis demonstrated that the gene network U (up) contained many upregulated genes that were mainly associated with bone morphology in the category of biological functions of skeletal and muscular system development and function. Moreover, the biological function of the gene network D (down), which contained downregulated genes, was associated with gene expression, the cell cycle and connective tissue development and function. These results should help to further clarify the molecular basis of the mechanisms of the LIPUS response in osteoblast cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Small Molecule Binding, Docking, and Characterization of the Interaction between Pth1 and Peptidyl-tRNA
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22741-22752; doi:10.3390/ijms141122741
Received: 9 October 2013 / Revised: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 12 November 2013 / Published: 19 November 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (785 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacterial Pth1 is essential for viability. Pth1 cleaves the ester bond between the peptide and nucleotide of peptidyl-tRNA generated from aborted translation, expression of mini-genes, and short ORFs. We have determined the shape of the Pth1:peptidyl-tRNA complex using small angle neutron scattering. Binding
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Bacterial Pth1 is essential for viability. Pth1 cleaves the ester bond between the peptide and nucleotide of peptidyl-tRNA generated from aborted translation, expression of mini-genes, and short ORFs. We have determined the shape of the Pth1:peptidyl-tRNA complex using small angle neutron scattering. Binding of piperonylpiperazine, a small molecule constituent of a combinatorial synthetic library common to most compounds with inhibitory activity, was mapped to Pth1 via NMR spectroscopy. We also report computational docking results, modeling piperonylpiperazine binding based on chemical shift perturbation mapping. Overall these studies promote Pth1 as a novel antibiotic target, contribute to understanding how Pth1 interacts with its substrate, advance the current model for cleavage, and demonstrate feasibility of small molecule inhibition. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Identification of Novel Pepper Genes Involved in Bax- or INF1-Mediated Cell Death Responses by High-Throughput Virus-Induced Gene Silencing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22782-22795; doi:10.3390/ijms141122782
Received: 24 September 2013 / Revised: 11 November 2013 / Accepted: 11 November 2013 / Published: 19 November 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hot pepper is one of the economically important crops in Asia. A large number of gene sequences, including expressed sequence tag (EST) and genomic sequences are publicly available. However, it is still a daunting task to determine gene function due to difficulties in
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Hot pepper is one of the economically important crops in Asia. A large number of gene sequences, including expressed sequence tag (EST) and genomic sequences are publicly available. However, it is still a daunting task to determine gene function due to difficulties in genetic modification of a pepper plants. Here, we show the application of the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) repression for the study of 459 pepper ESTs selected as non-host pathogen-induced cell death responsive genes from pepper microarray experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana. Developmental abnormalities in N. benthamiana plants are observed in the 32 (7%) pepper ESTs-silenced plants. Aberrant morphological phenotypes largely comprised of three groups: stunted, abnormal leaf, and dead. In addition, by employing the combination of VIGS and Agrobacterium-mediated transient assays, we identified novel pepper ESTs that involved in Bax or INF1-mediated cell death responses. Silencing of seven pepper ESTs homologs suppressed Bax or INF1-induced cell death, five of which suppressed both cell death responses in N. benthamiana. The genes represented by these five ESTs encode putative proteins with functions in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and lipid signaling. The genes represented by the other two pepper ESTs showing only Bax-mediated cell death inhibition encode a CCCH-type zinc finger protein containing an ankyrin-repeat domain and a probable calcium-binding protein, CML30-like. Taken together, we effectively isolated novel pepper clones that are involved in hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death using VIGS, and identified silenced clones that have different responses to Bax and INF1 exposure, indicating separate signaling pathways for Bax- and INF1-mediated cell death. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Programmed Cell Death and Apoptosis)
Open AccessArticle Usefulness of Plasma YKL-40 in Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Severity in Patients
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22817-22825; doi:10.3390/ijms141122817
Received: 7 August 2013 / Revised: 28 October 2013 / Accepted: 12 November 2013 / Published: 19 November 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (163 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plasma YKL-40 level has been reported as playing a significant role in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the correlation between plasma level of YKL-40 and the severity of CAP has not been reported. This study identifies the relationship between plasma level changes of the
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Plasma YKL-40 level has been reported as playing a significant role in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the correlation between plasma level of YKL-40 and the severity of CAP has not been reported. This study identifies the relationship between plasma level changes of the YKL-40 gene in adult patients hospitalized with CAP. The ELISA was used to measure the plasma YKL-40 level from 61 adult CAP patients before and after antibiotic treatment and from 60 healthy controls. The plasma YKL-40 levels were significantly increased in patients with CAP compared to normal controls. Moreover, the plasma concentration of YKL-40 correlated with the severity of CAP based on the pneumonia severity index (PSI) score (r = 0.630, p < 0.001), the CURB-65 (confusion, uremia, respiratory rate, BP, age 65 years) score (r = 0.640, p < 0.001), the Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score (r = 0.539, p < 0.001) and length of hospital stay (r = 0.321, p = 0.011), respectively. In conclusion, plasma YKL-40 may play a role in the diagnosis and clinical assessment of CAP severity, which could potentially guide the development of treatment strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diagnostics)
Open AccessArticle Tuning Fluidic Resistance via Liquid Crystal Microfluidics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22826-22844; doi:10.3390/ijms141122826
Received: 26 September 2013 / Revised: 4 November 2013 / Accepted: 8 November 2013 / Published: 19 November 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2808 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Flow of molecularly ordered fluids, like liquid crystals, is inherently coupled with the average local orientation of the molecules, or the director. The anisotropic coupling—typically absent in isotropic fluids—bestows unique functionalities to the flowing matrix. In this work, we harness this anisotropy to
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Flow of molecularly ordered fluids, like liquid crystals, is inherently coupled with the average local orientation of the molecules, or the director. The anisotropic coupling—typically absent in isotropic fluids—bestows unique functionalities to the flowing matrix. In this work, we harness this anisotropy to pattern different pathways to tunable fluidic resistance within microfluidic devices. We use a nematic liquid crystalline material flowing in microchannels to demonstrate passive and active modulation of the flow resistance. While appropriate surface anchoring conditions—which imprint distinct fluidic resistances within microchannels under similar hydrodynamic parameters—act as passive cues, an external field, e.g., temperature, is used to actively modulate the flow resistance in the microfluidic device. We apply this simple concept to fabricate basic fluidic circuits, which can be hierarchically extended to create complex resistance networks, without any additional design or morphological patterning of the microchannels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Novel Small Molecules as Inhibitors of Hepatitis C Virus by Structure-Based Virtual Screening
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22845-22856; doi:10.3390/ijms141122845
Received: 12 September 2013 / Revised: 6 November 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 20 November 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (505 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/NS4A serine protease is essential for viral replication, which is regarded as a promising drug target for developing direct-acting anti-HCV agents. In this study, sixteen novel compounds with cell-based HCV replicon activity ranging from 3.0 to 28.2 μM (IC
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/NS4A serine protease is essential for viral replication, which is regarded as a promising drug target for developing direct-acting anti-HCV agents. In this study, sixteen novel compounds with cell-based HCV replicon activity ranging from 3.0 to 28.2 μM (IC50) were successfully identified by means of structure-based virtual screening. Compound 5 and compound 11, with an IC50 of 3.0 μM and 5.1 μM, respectively, are the two most potent molecules with low cytotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Proteins and Protein-Ligand Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle The Changes in mGluR2 and mGluR7 Expression in Rat Medial Vestibular Nucleus and Flocculus Following Unilateral Labyrinthectomy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22857-22875; doi:10.3390/ijms141122857
Received: 21 August 2013 / Revised: 9 October 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 20 November 2013
PDF Full-text (1222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is known that the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and the cerebellar flocculus are the key areas, which contribute to the behavioral recovery (“vestibular compensation”) after unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). In these areas, how the genetic activities of the metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR2 and
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It is known that the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and the cerebellar flocculus are the key areas, which contribute to the behavioral recovery (“vestibular compensation”) after unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). In these areas, how the genetic activities of the metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR2 and mGluR7 performance after UL is unknown. With the means of quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry, we analyzed the expression of mGluR2 and mGluR7 in the bilateral MVN and the flocculus of rats in different stages after UL (the 1st, 3rd, and 7th day). Our results show that in the MVN, the mRNA, and protein expressions of mGluR7 were ipsilaterally decreased at the 1st day following UL. However, in the MVN, no change was observed in the mRNA and protein expressions of mGluR2. On the other hand, the mRNA and protein expression of mGluR2 were enhanced in the ipsilateral flocculus at the 1st day following UL, while in the flocculus no change was shown in mGluR7 mRNA and protein expressions. Our results suggest that mGluR2 and mGluR7 may contribute to the early rebalancing of spontaneous resting activity in the MVN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Open AccessArticle Hydration of AMP and ATP Molecules in Aqueous Solution and Solid Films
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22876-22890; doi:10.3390/ijms141122876
Received: 2 September 2013 / Revised: 27 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 20 November 2013
PDF Full-text (812 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water enables life and plays a critical role in biology. Considered as a versatile and adaptive component of the cell, water engages a wide range of biomolecular interactions. An organism can exist and function only if its self-assembled molecular structures are hydrated. It
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Water enables life and plays a critical role in biology. Considered as a versatile and adaptive component of the cell, water engages a wide range of biomolecular interactions. An organism can exist and function only if its self-assembled molecular structures are hydrated. It was shown recently that switching of AMP/ATP binding to the insulin-independent glucose transporter Human Erythrocyte Glucose Transport Protein (GLUT1) may greatly influence the ratio of bulk and bound water during regulation of glucose uptake by red blood cells. In this paper, we present the results on the hydration properties of AMP/ATP obtained by means of dielectric spectroscopy in aqueous solution and for fully ionized forms in solid amorphous films with the help of gravimetric studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Micro-Spectroscopy in Biological Applications)
Open AccessArticle Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a P-Glycoprotein from the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22891-22905; doi:10.3390/ijms141122891
Received: 9 September 2013 / Revised: 1 October 2013 / Accepted: 18 October 2013 / Published: 20 November 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Macrocyclic lactones such as abamectin and ivermectin constitute an important class of broad-spectrum insecticides. Widespread resistance to synthetic insecticides, including abamectin and ivermectin, poses a serious threat to the management of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), a major pest of cruciferous
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Macrocyclic lactones such as abamectin and ivermectin constitute an important class of broad-spectrum insecticides. Widespread resistance to synthetic insecticides, including abamectin and ivermectin, poses a serious threat to the management of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), a major pest of cruciferous plants worldwide. P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, plays a crucial role in the removal of amphiphilic xenobiotics, suggesting a mechanism for drug resistance in target organisms. In this study, PxPgp1, a putative Pgp gene from P. xylostella, was cloned and characterized. The open reading frame (ORF) of PxPgp1 consists of 3774 nucleotides, which encodes a 1257-amino acid peptide. The deduced PxPgp1 protein possesses structural characteristics of a typical Pgp, and clusters within the insect ABCB1. PxPgp1 was expressed throughout all developmental stages, and showed the highest expression level in adult males. PxPgp1 was highly expressed in midgut, malpighian tubules and testes. Elevated expression of PxPgp1 was observed in P. xylostella strains after they were exposed to the abamectin treatment. In addition, the constitutive expressions of PxPgp1 were significantly higher in laboratory-selected and field-collected resistant strains in comparison to their susceptible counterpart. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Nox Gene Expression and Cytochemical Localization of Hydrogen Peroxide in Polyporus umbellatus Sclerotial Formation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22967-22981; doi:10.3390/ijms141122967
Received: 1 November 2013 / Revised: 15 November 2013 / Accepted: 17 November 2013 / Published: 20 November 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (601 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of temperature shift on Polyporus umbellatus sclerotial development was investigated. Micromorphology of the sclerotia was observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cytochemical localization of H2O2 expressed as CeCl3 deposition at the subcellular level was observed
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The effect of temperature shift on Polyporus umbellatus sclerotial development was investigated. Micromorphology of the sclerotia was observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cytochemical localization of H2O2 expressed as CeCl3 deposition at the subcellular level was observed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nox gene expression in sclerotia and mycelia was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) specific activities increased during sclerotial development and decreased after the antioxidant diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) was used. Results indicated that the temperature shift treatment induced P. umbellatus sclerotial formation. Compared with the mycelia, the Nox gene was respectively upregulated by 10.577-, 30.984- and 25.469-fold in the sclerotia of SI, SD and SM stages respectively. During the sclerotial formation, H2O2 accumulation was observed in the cell walls or around the organelle membranes of the mycelial cells. The antioxidant DPI decreased the generation of H2O2 in mycelial cells. The specific activity of SOD and CAT levels was decreased significantly by DPI. The activity of the two antioxidant enzymes in the mycelia increased much more during sclerotial formation (p < 0.05). Oxidative stress was closely associated with sclerotial development in P. umbellatus induced by temperature shift treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22982-22996; doi:10.3390/ijms141122982
Received: 24 September 2013 / Revised: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 5 November 2013 / Published: 20 November 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied
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Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3) and its maintainer (designated NB3) in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS), annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Open AccessArticle Alteration of Tight Junction Gene Expression by Calcium- and Vitamin D-Deficient Diet in the Duodenum of Calbindin-Null Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22997-23010; doi:10.3390/ijms141122997
Received: 27 September 2013 / Revised: 1 November 2013 / Accepted: 6 November 2013 / Published: 20 November 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (513 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Calcium absorption is regulated by both active (transcellular) and passive (paracellular) pathways. Although each pathway has been studied, correlations between the two pathways have not been well elucidated. In previous investigations, the critical transcellular proteins, calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k) and -D28k (CaBP-28k), were
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Calcium absorption is regulated by both active (transcellular) and passive (paracellular) pathways. Although each pathway has been studied, correlations between the two pathways have not been well elucidated. In previous investigations, the critical transcellular proteins, calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k) and -D28k (CaBP-28k), were shown to affect other transcellular pathways by buffering intracellular calcium concentrations. The rate of paracellular calcium transport in the duodenum is generally determined by the expression of tight junction genes. In the present study, the effect of dietary calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation on the expression of tight junction genes (occludin, ZO-1 and claudin 2, 10b, 12 and 15) in the duodenum of CaBP-9k- and/or -28k-deficient mice was examined. With a normal diet, the expression of most tight junction genes in the duodenum was significantly increased in CaBP-9k knockout (KO) mice compared to wild-type (WT) animals. With a calcium- and vitamin D-deficient diet, tight junction gene expression was significantly decreased in the duodenum of the CaBP-9k KO mice. These findings suggest that expression of paracellular tight junction genes is regulated by transcellular CaBP proteins, suggesting that active and passive calcium transport pathways may function cooperatively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Nano-Nutrition of Chicken Embryos. The Effect of in Ovo Administration of Diamond Nanoparticles and l-Glutamine on Molecular Responses in Chicken Embryo Pectoral Muscles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 23033-23044; doi:10.3390/ijms141123033
Received: 12 October 2013 / Revised: 12 November 2013 / Accepted: 13 November 2013 / Published: 20 November 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (524 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It has been demonstrated that the content of certain amino acids in eggs is not sufficient to fully support embryonic development. One possibility to supply the embryo with extra nutrients and energy is in ovo administration of nutrients. Nanoparticles of diamond are highly
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It has been demonstrated that the content of certain amino acids in eggs is not sufficient to fully support embryonic development. One possibility to supply the embryo with extra nutrients and energy is in ovo administration of nutrients. Nanoparticles of diamond are highly biocompatible non-toxic carbonic structures, and we hypothesized that bio-complexes of diamond nanoparticles with l-glutamine may affect molecular responses in breast muscle. The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the effect of diamond nanoparticle (ND) and l-glutamine (Gln) on expression of growth and differentiation factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L) were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln/ND up-regulated expression of genes related to muscle cell proliferation (FGF2) and differentiation (MyoD1). Furthermore, the ratio between FGF2 and MyoD1 was highest in the Gln/ND group. At the end of embryogenesis, Gln/ND enhanced both proliferation and differentiation of pectoral muscle cells and differentiation dominated over proliferation. These preliminary results suggest that the bio-complex of glutamine and diamond nanoparticles may accelerate growth and maturation of muscle cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle Oxidative Stress/Angiotensinogen/Renin-Angiotensin System Axis in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 23045-23062; doi:10.3390/ijms141123045
Received: 7 August 2013 / Revised: 7 November 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although recent studies have proven that renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockades retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy, the detailed mechanisms of their reno-protective effects on the development of diabetic nephropathy remain uncertain. In rodent models, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS)
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Although recent studies have proven that renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockades retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy, the detailed mechanisms of their reno-protective effects on the development of diabetic nephropathy remain uncertain. In rodent models, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important for intrarenal angiotensinogen (AGT) augmentation in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, no direct evidence is available to demonstrate that AGT expression is enhanced in the kidneys of patients with diabetes. To examine whether the expression levels of ROS- and RAS-related factors in kidneys are increased with the progression of diabetic nephropathy, biopsied samples from 8 controls and 27 patients with type 2 diabetes were used. After the biopsy, these patients were diagnosed with minor glomerular abnormality or diabetes mellitus by clinical and pathological findings. The intensities of AGT, angiotensin II (Ang II), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization and/or immunohistochemistry. Expression levels were greater in patients with diabetes than in control subjects. Moreover, the augmented intrarenal AGT mRNA expression paralleled renal dysfunction in patients with diabetes. These data suggest the importance of the activated oxidative stress/AGT/RAS axis in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle GC and GC/MS Analysis of Essential Oil Composition of the Endemic Soqotraen Leucas virgata Balf.f. and Its Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 23129-23139; doi:10.3390/ijms141123129
Received: 24 October 2013 / Revised: 11 November 2013 / Accepted: 12 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Leucas virgata Balf.f. (Lamiaceae) was collected from the Island Soqotra (Yemen) and its essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the oil was investigated by GC and GC-MS. Moreover, the essential oil was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against two
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Leucas virgata Balf.f. (Lamiaceae) was collected from the Island Soqotra (Yemen) and its essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the oil was investigated by GC and GC-MS. Moreover, the essential oil was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against two Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, and one yeast species by using broth micro-dilution assay for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and antioxidant activity by measuring the scavenging activity of the DPPH radical. The investigation led to the identification of 43 constituents, representing 93.9% of the total oil. The essential oil of L. virgata was characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (50.8%). Camphor (20.5%) exo-fenchol (3.4%), fenchon (5.4%), and borneol (3.1%) were identified as the main components. Oxygenated sesquiterpenes were found as the second major group of compounds (21.0%). β-Eudesmol (6.1%) and caryophyllene oxide (5.1%) were the major compounds among oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The results of the antimicrobial assay showed that the oil exhibited a great antibacterial activity against the tested S. aureus, B. subtilis, and E. coli. No activity was found against P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. Moreover, the DPPH-radical scavenging assay exhibited only a moderate antioxidant activity (31%) for the oil at the highest concentration tested (1 mg/mL). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Human Colorectal Cancer by Using 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Protoporphyrin IX Fluorescence with Spectral Unmixing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 23140-23152; doi:10.3390/ijms141123140
Received: 30 September 2013 / Revised: 8 November 2013 / Accepted: 12 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1588 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate evaluation of metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) is indispensable for adequate treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Here, we demonstrate detection of metastases of human CRC in removed fresh LNs using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence. A spectral unmixing method was
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Accurate evaluation of metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) is indispensable for adequate treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Here, we demonstrate detection of metastases of human CRC in removed fresh LNs using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence. A spectral unmixing method was employed to reduce the overlap of collagen autofluorescence on PpIX fluorescence. A total of 17 surgery patients with advanced CRC were included in this study. After 5-ALA at a dose of 15 mg/kg of body weight was applied orally 2 h prior to surgery, 87 LNs were subjected to spectral fluorescence imaging and histopathological diagnosis, and statistical analysis was performed. No apparent side effect was observed to be associated with 5-ALA administration. The spectral unmixing fluorescence intensity of PpIX in metastatic LNs was 10.2-fold greater than that in nonmetastaic LNs. The receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated as 0.95. Our results show the potential of 5-ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence processed by spectral unmixing for detecting metastases in excised fresh LNs from patients with CRC, suggesting that this rapid and feasible method is applicable to gross evaluation of resected LN samples in pathology laboratories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Micro-Spectroscopy in Biological Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Tetra-Repeat Microsatellite Markers for the Masu Salmon (Oncorhynchus masou masou) and Its Application in Cross-Subspecies Amplification
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 23153-23159; doi:10.3390/ijms141123153
Received: 26 September 2013 / Revised: 11 November 2013 / Accepted: 12 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We developed tetranucleotide-repeat microsatellite markers for the masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) complex. 454 pyrosequencing was used to discover repeat motifs, and seven polymorphic microsatellite-primer sets were identified. The number of alleles detected at each locus ranged from four to 24 and
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We developed tetranucleotide-repeat microsatellite markers for the masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) complex. 454 pyrosequencing was used to discover repeat motifs, and seven polymorphic microsatellite-primer sets were identified. The number of alleles detected at each locus ranged from four to 24 and the expected heterozygosity varied from 0.57 to 0.92. Cross-subspecies amplification for O. m. masou, O. m. ishikawae and O. m. subsp. was successful. These microsatellites can be utilized in studies of genetic structure, genetic diversity, and intra- and inter-subspecific hybridization, making a contribution to conservation and management of the Oncorhynchus masou complex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Systems Biology Approach to the Dissection of the Complexity of Regulatory Networks in the S. scrofa Cardiocirculatory System
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 23160-23187; doi:10.3390/ijms141123160
Received: 9 August 2013 / Revised: 23 October 2013 / Accepted: 2 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Genome-wide experiments are routinely used to increase the understanding of the biological processes involved in the development and maintenance of a variety of pathologies. Although the technical feasibility of this type of experiment has improved in recent years, data analysis remains challenging. In
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Genome-wide experiments are routinely used to increase the understanding of the biological processes involved in the development and maintenance of a variety of pathologies. Although the technical feasibility of this type of experiment has improved in recent years, data analysis remains challenging. In this context, gene set analysis has emerged as a fundamental tool for the interpretation of the results. Here, we review strategies used in the gene set approach, and using datasets for the pig cardiocirculatory system as a case study, we demonstrate how the use of a combination of these strategies can enhance the interpretation of results. Gene set analyses are able to distinguish vessels from the heart and arteries from veins in a manner that is consistent with the different cellular composition of smooth muscle cells. By integrating microRNA elements in the regulatory circuits identified, we find that vessel specificity is maintained through specific miRNAs, such as miR-133a and miR-143, which show anti-correlated expression with their mRNA targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation by non-coding RNAs 2013)
Open AccessArticle Different Effects of Androgen on the Expression of Fut1, Fut2, Fut4 and Fut9 in Male Mouse Reproductive Tract
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 23188-23202; doi:10.3390/ijms141123188
Received: 18 September 2013 / Revised: 22 October 2013 / Accepted: 31 October 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
PDF Full-text (1384 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The α-(1,2) fucosyltransferases (Fut1 and Fut2) and α-(1,3) fucosyltransferases (Fut4, Fut9) are responsible for the synthesis of Lewis X (LeX) and Lewis Y (LeY) conjugated to glycoproteins. We recently reported that these fucosyltransferases were differentially expressed in the
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The α-(1,2) fucosyltransferases (Fut1 and Fut2) and α-(1,3) fucosyltransferases (Fut4, Fut9) are responsible for the synthesis of Lewis X (LeX) and Lewis Y (LeY) conjugated to glycoproteins. We recently reported that these fucosyltransferases were differentially expressed in the reproductive tract of male mouse. Here, we studied the effect of androgen on fucosyltransferase expression through the use of mouse castration models. We found that Fut1 mRNA and Fut4 mRNA were upregulated, while Fut2 mRNA and Fut9 mRNA were downregulated by androgen in the caput epididymis. However, in the vas deferens and prostate, only Fut4 mRNA and Fut2 mRNA were respectively upregulated following exposure to androgen. In the seminal vesicle, all fucosyltransferases, with the exception of Fut9, were upregulated. We identified the androgen receptor binding sites (ARBSs) of Fut2, Fut4 and Fut9 in the caput epididymis. Luciferase assay for these ARBSs is able to provide an indication as to why Fut4 and Fut9 are differently expressed and regulated by androgen, although they catalyze the same α-(1,3) fucose linkage. Our study showed that androgen could differentially regulate the expression of these fucosyltransferases and provided an insight into the characteristic distribution of each fucosyltransferase responsible for LeX/LeY biosynthesis in the male reproductive tract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycosylation and Glycoproteins)
Open AccessArticle Possible Role of −374T/A Polymorphism of RAGE Gene in Longevity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 23203-23211; doi:10.3390/ijms141123203
Received: 9 October 2013 / Revised: 11 November 2013 / Accepted: 15 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Demographic and social changes in the last decades have resulted in improvements in health and longevity. The survival of elderly people has improved significantly and thus centenarians are becoming the fastest growing population group. Environmental, genetic, and accidental factors have influenced the human
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Demographic and social changes in the last decades have resulted in improvements in health and longevity. The survival of elderly people has improved significantly and thus centenarians are becoming the fastest growing population group. Environmental, genetic, and accidental factors have influenced the human life span. Researchers have gained substantial evidence that advanced glycation end products may play an important role in the processes of physiological aging. The aim of the present study was to investigate any differences in the frequencies of −374T/A polymorphism in subjects aged >90 years and in middle-aged individuals. We observed association between the A allele and genotype homozygous for this allele (AA) with a longer life expectancy in the male population. In particular, there was a prevalence of AA genotype and A allele in long-living subjects and a prevalence of the allele T in middle-aged subjects, indicating a possible protective role of the allele A to aging. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that longevity is the result of a good functioning of the immune system and a presumable hyper-expression of variants of anti-inflammatory genes of immunity. The differences in the genetic regulation of inflammatory processes may influence the presence of age-related disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)

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Open AccessReview Lessons from Mouse Models of High-Fat Diet-Induced NAFLD
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21240-21257; doi:10.3390/ijms141121240
Received: 30 August 2013 / Revised: 6 October 2013 / Accepted: 12 October 2013 / Published: 24 October 2013
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a clinicopathologic spectrum of diseases ranging from isolated hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the more aggressive form of fatty liver disease that may progress to cirrhosis and cirrhosis-related complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The prevalence of NAFLD,
[...] Read more.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a clinicopathologic spectrum of diseases ranging from isolated hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the more aggressive form of fatty liver disease that may progress to cirrhosis and cirrhosis-related complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The prevalence of NAFLD, including NASH, is also increasing in parallel with the growing epidemics of obesity and diabetes. However, the causal relationships between obesity and/or diabetes and NASH or liver tumorigenesis have not yet been clearly elucidated. Animal models of NAFLD/NASH provide crucial information, not only for elucidating the pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH, but also for examining therapeutic effects of various agents. A high-fat diet is widely used to produce hepatic steatosis and NASH in experimental animals. Several studies, including our own, have shown that long-term high-fat diet loading, which can induce obesity and insulin resistance, can also induce NASH and liver tumorigenesis in C57BL/6J mice. In this article, we discuss the pathophysiology of and treatment strategies for NAFLD and subsequent NAFLD-related complications such as NASH and liver tumorigenesis, mainly based on lessons learned from mouse models of high-fat diet-induced NAFLD/NASH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Research)
Open AccessReview Magnetic Nanoparticles: Surface Effects and Properties Related to Biomedicine Applications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21266-21305; doi:10.3390/ijms141121266
Received: 2 August 2013 / Revised: 10 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 October 2013 / Published: 25 October 2013
Cited by 110 | PDF Full-text (1105 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to finite size effects, such as the high surface-to-volume ratio and different crystal structures, magnetic nanoparticles are found to exhibit interesting and considerably different magnetic properties than those found in their corresponding bulk materials. These nanoparticles can be synthesized in several ways
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Due to finite size effects, such as the high surface-to-volume ratio and different crystal structures, magnetic nanoparticles are found to exhibit interesting and considerably different magnetic properties than those found in their corresponding bulk materials. These nanoparticles can be synthesized in several ways (e.g., chemical and physical) with controllable sizes enabling their comparison to biological organisms from cells (10–100 μm), viruses, genes, down to proteins (3–50 nm). The optimization of the nanoparticles’ size, size distribution, agglomeration, coating, and shapes along with their unique magnetic properties prompted the application of nanoparticles of this type in diverse fields. Biomedicine is one of these fields where intensive research is currently being conducted. In this review, we will discuss the magnetic properties of nanoparticles which are directly related to their applications in biomedicine. We will focus mainly on surface effects and ferrite nanoparticles, and on one diagnostic application of magnetic nanoparticles as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles 2013)
Open AccessReview The Role of Crowded Physiological Environments in Prion and Prion-like Protein Aggregation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21339-21352; doi:10.3390/ijms141121339
Received: 31 August 2013 / Revised: 24 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 25 October 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prion diseases and prion-like protein misfolding diseases are related to the accumulation of abnormal aggregates of the normal host proteins including prion proteins and Tau protein. These proteins possess self-templating and transmissible characteristics. The crowded physiological environments where the aggregation of these amyloidogenic
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Prion diseases and prion-like protein misfolding diseases are related to the accumulation of abnormal aggregates of the normal host proteins including prion proteins and Tau protein. These proteins possess self-templating and transmissible characteristics. The crowded physiological environments where the aggregation of these amyloidogenic proteins takes place can be imitated in vitro by the addition of macromolecular crowding agents such as inert polysaccharides. In this review, we summarize the aggregation of prion proteins in crowded physiological environments and discuss the role of macromolecular crowding in prion protein aggregation. We also summarize the aggregation of prion-like proteins including human Tau protein, human α-synuclein, and human copper, zinc superoxide dismutase under macromolecular crowding environments and discuss the role of macromolecular crowding in prion-like protein aggregation. The excluded-volume effects caused by macromolecular crowding could accelerate the aggregation of neurodegenerative disease-associated proteins while inhibiting the aggregation of the proteins that are not neurodegenerative disease-associated. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Protein Folding)
Open AccessReview Oxidative Stress in Diabetes: Implications for Vascular and Other Complications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21525-21550; doi:10.3390/ijms141121525
Received: 22 August 2013 / Revised: 14 October 2013 / Accepted: 18 October 2013 / Published: 30 October 2013
Cited by 54 | PDF Full-text (524 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent decades, oxidative stress has become a focus of interest in most biomedical disciplines and many types of clinical research. Increasing evidence shows that oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetes, obesity, cancer, ageing, inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, hypertension, apoptosis, cardiovascular
[...] Read more.
In recent decades, oxidative stress has become a focus of interest in most biomedical disciplines and many types of clinical research. Increasing evidence shows that oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetes, obesity, cancer, ageing, inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, hypertension, apoptosis, cardiovascular diseases, and heart failure. Based on these studies, an emerging concept is that oxidative stress is the “final common pathway” through which the risk factors for several diseases exert their deleterious effects. Oxidative stress causes a complex dysregulation of cell metabolism and cell–cell homeostasis; in particular, oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. These are the two most relevant mechanisms in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and its vascular complications, the leading cause of death in diabetic patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease)
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Open AccessReview Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase (MELK): A Novel Regulator in Cell Cycle Control, Embryonic Development, and Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21551-21560; doi:10.3390/ijms141121551
Received: 26 September 2013 / Revised: 16 October 2013 / Accepted: 22 October 2013 / Published: 31 October 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (197 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) functions as a modulator of intracellular signaling and affects various cellular and biological processes, including cell cycle, cell proliferation, apoptosis, spliceosome assembly, gene expression, embryonic development, hematopoiesis, and oncogenesis. In these cellular processes, MELK functions by binding
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Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) functions as a modulator of intracellular signaling and affects various cellular and biological processes, including cell cycle, cell proliferation, apoptosis, spliceosome assembly, gene expression, embryonic development, hematopoiesis, and oncogenesis. In these cellular processes, MELK functions by binding to numerous proteins. In general, the effects of multiple protein interactions with MELK are oncogenic in nature, and the overexpression of MELK in kinds of cancer provides some evidence that it may be involved in tumorigenic process. In this review, our current knowledge of MELK function and recent discoveries in MELK signaling pathway were discussed. The regulation of MELK in cancers and its potential as a therapeutic target were also described. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Proteins and Protein-Ligand Interactions)
Open AccessReview Engineering Lipid Bilayer Membranes for Protein Studies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21561-21597; doi:10.3390/ijms141121561
Received: 6 August 2013 / Revised: 13 October 2013 / Accepted: 21 October 2013 / Published: 31 October 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (2017 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lipid membranes regulate the flow of nutrients and communication signaling between cells and protect the sub-cellular structures. Recent attempts to fabricate artificial systems using nanostructures that mimic the physiological properties of natural lipid bilayer membranes (LBM) fused with transmembrane proteins have helped demonstrate
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Lipid membranes regulate the flow of nutrients and communication signaling between cells and protect the sub-cellular structures. Recent attempts to fabricate artificial systems using nanostructures that mimic the physiological properties of natural lipid bilayer membranes (LBM) fused with transmembrane proteins have helped demonstrate the importance of temperature, pH, ionic strength, adsorption behavior, conformational reorientation and surface density in cellular membranes which all affect the incorporation of proteins on solid surfaces. Much of this work is performed on artificial templates made of polymer sponges or porous materials based on alumina, mica, and porous silicon (PSi) surfaces. For example, porous silicon materials have high biocompatibility, biodegradability, and photoluminescence, which allow them to be used both as a support structure for lipid bilayers or a template to measure the electrochemical functionality of living cells grown over the surface as in vivo. The variety of these media, coupled with the complex physiological conditions present in living systems, warrant a summary and prospectus detailing which artificial systems provide the most promise for different biological conditions. This study summarizes the use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data on artificial biological membranes that are closely matched with previously published biological systems using both black lipid membrane and patch clamp techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Modelling of Biological Membranes)
Open AccessReview Biofilms: The Stronghold of Legionella pneumophila
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21660-21675; doi:10.3390/ijms141121660
Received: 9 August 2013 / Revised: 7 September 2013 / Accepted: 14 October 2013 / Published: 31 October 2013
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1494 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Legionellosis is mostly caused by Legionella pneumophila and is defined as a severe respiratory illness with a case fatality rate ranging from 5% to 80%. L. pneumophila is ubiquitous in natural and anthropogenic water systems. L. pneumophila is transmitted by inhalation of contaminated
[...] Read more.
Legionellosis is mostly caused by Legionella pneumophila and is defined as a severe respiratory illness with a case fatality rate ranging from 5% to 80%. L. pneumophila is ubiquitous in natural and anthropogenic water systems. L. pneumophila is transmitted by inhalation of contaminated aerosols produced by a variety of devices. While L. pneumophila replicates within environmental protozoa, colonization and persistence in its natural environment are also mediated by biofilm formation and colonization within multispecies microbial communities. There is now evidence that some legionellosis outbreaks are correlated with the presence of biofilms. Thus, preventing biofilm formation appears as one of the strategies to reduce water system contamination. However, we lack information about the chemical and biophysical conditions, as well as the molecular mechanisms that allow the production of biofilms by L. pneumophila. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of biofilm formation by L. pneumophila and the roles of other microbial species in L. pneumophila biofilm colonization. In addition, we discuss the protective roles of biofilms against current L. pneumophila sanitation strategies along with the initial data available on the regulation of L. pneumophila biofilm formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilms: Extracellular Bastions of Bacteria) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview RNA-Binding Proteins Impacting on Internal Initiation of Translation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21705-21726; doi:10.3390/ijms141121705
Received: 6 September 2013 / Revised: 17 October 2013 / Accepted: 22 October 2013 / Published: 1 November 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (546 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are pivotal regulators of all the steps of gene expression. RBPs govern gene regulation at the post-transcriptional level by virtue of their capacity to assemble ribonucleoprotein complexes on certain RNA structural elements, both in normal cells and in response to
[...] Read more.
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are pivotal regulators of all the steps of gene expression. RBPs govern gene regulation at the post-transcriptional level by virtue of their capacity to assemble ribonucleoprotein complexes on certain RNA structural elements, both in normal cells and in response to various environmental stresses. A rapid cellular response to stress conditions is triggered at the step of translation initiation. Two basic mechanisms govern translation initiation in eukaryotic mRNAs, the cap-dependent initiation mechanism that operates in most mRNAs, and the internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent mechanism activated under conditions that compromise the general translation pathway. IRES elements are cis-acting RNA sequences that recruit the translation machinery using a cap-independent mechanism often assisted by a subset of translation initiation factors and various RBPs. IRES-dependent initiation appears to use different strategies to recruit the translation machinery depending on the RNA organization of the region and the network of RBPs interacting with the element. In this review we discuss recent advances in understanding the implications of RBPs on IRES-dependent translation initiation. Full article
Open AccessReview Rodent Models of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21833-21857; doi:10.3390/ijms141121833
Received: 27 August 2013 / Revised: 14 October 2013 / Accepted: 21 October 2013 / Published: 4 November 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), has been limited by the availability of suitable models for this disease. A number of rodent models have been described in which the relevant liver pathology develops in an appropriate metabolic context.
[...] Read more.
Research in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), has been limited by the availability of suitable models for this disease. A number of rodent models have been described in which the relevant liver pathology develops in an appropriate metabolic context. These models are promising tools for researchers investigating one of the key issues of NASH: not so much why steatosis occurs, but what causes the transition from simple steatosis to the inflammatory, progressive fibrosing condition of steatohepatitis. The different rodent models can be classified into two large groups. The first includes models in which the disease is acquired after dietary or pharmacological manipulation, and the second, genetically modified models in which liver disease develops spontaneously. To date, no single rodent model has encompassed the full spectrum of human disease progression, but individual models can imitate particular characteristics of human disease. Therefore, it is important that researchers choose the appropriate rodent models. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the metabolic abnormalities present in the currently available rodent models of NAFLD, summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the established models and the key findings that have furthered our understanding of the disease’s pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Research)
Open AccessReview Solid Lipid Nanoparticle-Based Calix[n]arenes and Calix-Resorcinarenes as Building Blocks: Synthesis, Formulation and Characterization
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21899-21942; doi:10.3390/ijms141121899
Received: 2 September 2013 / Revised: 7 October 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 5 November 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2023 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have attracted increasing attention during recent years. This paper presents an overview about the use of calix[n]arenes and calix-resorcinarenes in the formulation of SLNs. Because of their specific inclusion capability both in the intraparticle spaces and in the host
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Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have attracted increasing attention during recent years. This paper presents an overview about the use of calix[n]arenes and calix-resorcinarenes in the formulation of SLNs. Because of their specific inclusion capability both in the intraparticle spaces and in the host cavities as well as their capacity for functionalization, these colloidal nanostructures represent excellent tools for the encapsulation of different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the area of drug targeting, cosmetic additives, contrast agents, etc. Various synthetic routes to the supramolecular structures will be given. These various routes lead to the formulation of the corresponding SLNs. Characterization, properties, toxicological considerations as well as numerous corresponding experimental studies and analytical methods will be also exposed and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Supramolecular Systems)
Open AccessReview Modeling Human Liver Biology Using Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22011-22021; doi:10.3390/ijms141122011
Received: 28 September 2013 / Revised: 28 October 2013 / Accepted: 30 October 2013 / Published: 6 November 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract Stem cell-derived hepatocytes represent promising models to study human liver biology and disease. This concise review discusses the recent progresses in the field, with a focus on human liver disease, drug metabolism and virus infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Xenobiotic Metabolism)
Open AccessReview Environmental Pollution: A Tangible Risk for NAFLD Pathogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22052-22066; doi:10.3390/ijms141122052
Received: 2 September 2013 / Revised: 18 October 2013 / Accepted: 24 October 2013 / Published: 7 November 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The liver is crucial for human life, and the health of this organ often mirrors the health of the individual. The liver can be the target of several diseases, the most prevalent of which, as a consequence of development and changes in human
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The liver is crucial for human life, and the health of this organ often mirrors the health of the individual. The liver can be the target of several diseases, the most prevalent of which, as a consequence of development and changes in human lifestyles, is the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a multifactorial disease that embraces many histo-pathologic conditions and is highly linked to metabolic derangements. Technological progress and industrialization have also had the consequence of releasing pollutants in the environment, for instance pesticides or solvents, as well as by-products of discharge, such as the particulate matter. In the last decade, a growing body of evidence has emerged, shedding light on the potential impact of environmental pollutants on liver health and, in particular, on NAFLD occurrence. These contaminants have a great steatogenic potential and need to be considered as tangible NAFLD risk factors. There is an urgent need for a deeper comprehension of their molecular mechanisms of action, as well as for new lines of intervention to reduce their worldwide diffusion. This review wishes to sensitize the community to the effects of several environmental pollutants on liver health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Research)
Open AccessReview The Molecular Mechanisms of Zinc Neurotoxicity and the Pathogenesis of Vascular Type Senile Dementia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22067-22081; doi:10.3390/ijms141122067
Received: 18 September 2013 / Revised: 18 October 2013 / Accepted: 22 October 2013 / Published: 7 November 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (568 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element that is abundantly present in the brain. Despite its importance in normal brain functions, excess Zn is neurotoxic and causes neurodegeneration following transient global ischemia and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of vascular-type dementia
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Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element that is abundantly present in the brain. Despite its importance in normal brain functions, excess Zn is neurotoxic and causes neurodegeneration following transient global ischemia and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of vascular-type dementia (VD). We have investigated the molecular mechanisms of Zn-induced neurotoxicity using immortalized hypothalamic neurons (GT1-7 cells) and found that carnosine (β-alanyl histidine) and histidine (His) inhibited Zn2+-induced neuronal death. A DNA microarray analysis revealed that the expression of several genes, including metal-related genes (metallothionein and Zn transporter 1), endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress related genes (GADD34, GADD45, and p8), and the calcium (Ca)-related gene Arc (activity-related cytoskeleton protein), were affected after Zn exposure. The co-existence of carnosine or His inhibited the expression of GADD34, p8, and Arc, although they did not influence the expression of the metal-related genes. Therefore, ER-stress and the disruption of Ca homeostasis may underlie the mechanisms of Zn-induced neurotoxicity, and carnosine might be a possible drug candidate for the treatment of VD. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Molecular Research in Neurotoxicology)
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Open AccessReview The Ribonucleoprotein Csr Network
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22117-22131; doi:10.3390/ijms141122117
Received: 18 July 2013 / Revised: 21 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 8 November 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ribonucleoprotein complexes are essential regulatory components in bacteria. In this review, we focus on the carbon storage regulator (Csr) network, which is well conserved in the bacterial world. This regulatory network is composed of the CsrA master regulator, its targets and regulators. CsrA
[...] Read more.
Ribonucleoprotein complexes are essential regulatory components in bacteria. In this review, we focus on the carbon storage regulator (Csr) network, which is well conserved in the bacterial world. This regulatory network is composed of the CsrA master regulator, its targets and regulators. CsrA binds to mRNA targets and regulates translation either negatively or positively. Binding to small non-coding RNAs controls activity of this protein. Expression of these regulators is tightly regulated at the level of transcription and stability by various global regulators (RNAses, two-component systems, alarmone). We discuss the implications of these complex regulations in bacterial adaptation. Full article
Open AccessReview How Parkinsonian Toxins Dysregulate the Autophagy Machinery
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22163-22189; doi:10.3390/ijms141122163
Received: 30 September 2013 / Revised: 28 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 8 November 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (782 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since their discovery, Parkinsonian toxins (6-hydroxydopamine, MPP+, paraquat, and rotenone) have been widely employed as in vivo and in vitro chemical models of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Alterations in mitochondrial homeostasis, protein quality control pathways, and more recently, autophagy/mitophagy have been implicated in neurotoxin
[...] Read more.
Since their discovery, Parkinsonian toxins (6-hydroxydopamine, MPP+, paraquat, and rotenone) have been widely employed as in vivo and in vitro chemical models of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Alterations in mitochondrial homeostasis, protein quality control pathways, and more recently, autophagy/mitophagy have been implicated in neurotoxin models of PD. Here, we highlight the molecular mechanisms by which different PD toxins dysregulate autophagy/mitophagy and how alterations of these pathways play beneficial or detrimental roles in dopamine neurons. The convergent and divergent effects of PD toxins on mitochondrial function and autophagy/mitophagy are also discussed in this review. Furthermore, we propose new diagnostic tools and discuss how pharmacological modulators of autophagy/mitophagy can be developed as disease-modifying treatments for PD. Finally, we discuss the critical need to identify endogenous and synthetic forms of PD toxins and develop efficient health preventive programs to mitigate the risk of developing PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Molecular Research in Neurotoxicology)
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Open AccessReview MicroRNAs and Triple Negative Breast Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22202-22220; doi:10.3390/ijms141122202
Received: 2 September 2013 / Revised: 9 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 October 2013 / Published: 11 November 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is a very aggressive tumor subtype, which still lacks specific markers for an effective targeted therapy. Despite the common feature of negativity for the three most relevant receptors (ER, PgR and HER2), TNBC is a very heterogeneous disease
[...] Read more.
Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is a very aggressive tumor subtype, which still lacks specific markers for an effective targeted therapy. Despite the common feature of negativity for the three most relevant receptors (ER, PgR and HER2), TNBC is a very heterogeneous disease where different subgroups can be recognized, and both gene and microRNA profiling studies have recently been carried out to dissect the different molecular entities. Moreover, several microRNAs playing a crucial role in triple negative breast cancer biology have been identified, providing the experimental basis for a possible therapeutic application. Indeed, the causal involvement of microRNAs in breast cancer and the possible use of these small noncoding RNA molecules as biomarkers has been extensively studied with promising results. Their application as therapeutic tools might represent an innovative approach, especially for a tumor subgroup still lacking an efficient and specific therapy such as TNBC. In this review, we summarize our knowledge on the most important microRNAs described in TNBC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Bases of Cancer Research)
Open AccessReview Enhancing Metagenomics Investigations of Microbial Interactions with Biofilm Technology
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22246-22257; doi:10.3390/ijms141122246
Received: 15 September 2013 / Revised: 25 October 2013 / Accepted: 29 October 2013 / Published: 11 November 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (335 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Investigations of microbial ecology and diversity have been greatly enhanced by the application of culture-independent techniques. One such approach, metagenomics, involves sample collections from soil, water, and other environments. Extracted nucleic acids from bulk environmental samples are sequenced and analyzed, which allows microbial
[...] Read more.
Investigations of microbial ecology and diversity have been greatly enhanced by the application of culture-independent techniques. One such approach, metagenomics, involves sample collections from soil, water, and other environments. Extracted nucleic acids from bulk environmental samples are sequenced and analyzed, which allows microbial interactions to be inferred on the basis of bioinformatics calculations. In most environments, microbial interactions occur predominately in surface-adherent, biofilm communities. In this review, we address metagenomics sampling and biofilm biology, and propose an experimental strategy whereby the resolving power of metagenomics can be enhanced by incorporating a biofilm-enrichment step during sample acquisition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilms: Extracellular Bastions of Bacteria) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview The NO/ONOO-Cycle as the Central Cause of Heart Failure
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22274-22330; doi:10.3390/ijms141122274
Received: 29 June 2013 / Revised: 23 October 2013 / Accepted: 24 October 2013 / Published: 13 November 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (482 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The NO/ONOO-cycle is a primarily local, biochemical vicious cycle mechanism, centered on elevated peroxynitrite and oxidative stress, but also involving 10 additional elements: NF-κB, inflammatory cytokines, iNOS, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide, mitochondrial dysfunction (lowered energy charge, ATP), NMDA activity, intracellular Ca2+,
[...] Read more.
The NO/ONOO-cycle is a primarily local, biochemical vicious cycle mechanism, centered on elevated peroxynitrite and oxidative stress, but also involving 10 additional elements: NF-κB, inflammatory cytokines, iNOS, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide, mitochondrial dysfunction (lowered energy charge, ATP), NMDA activity, intracellular Ca2+, TRP receptors and tetrahydrobiopterin depletion. All 12 of these elements have causal roles in heart failure (HF) and each is linked through a total of 87 studies to specific correlates of HF. Two apparent causal factors of HF, RhoA and endothelin-1, each act as tissue-limited cycle elements. Nineteen stressors that initiate cases of HF, each act to raise multiple cycle elements, potentially initiating the cycle in this way. Different types of HF, left vs. right ventricular HF, with or without arrhythmia, etc., may differ from one another in the regions of the myocardium most impacted by the cycle. None of the elements of the cycle or the mechanisms linking them are original, but they collectively produce the robust nature of the NO/ONOO-cycle which creates a major challenge for treatment of HF or other proposed NO/ONOO-cycle diseases. Elevated peroxynitrite/NO ratio and consequent oxidative stress are essential to both HF and the NO/ONOO-cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease)
Open AccessReview Ionizing Radiation-Induced Responses in Human Cells with Differing TP53 Status
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22409-22435; doi:10.3390/ijms141122409
Received: 16 September 2013 / Revised: 29 October 2013 / Accepted: 4 November 2013 / Published: 13 November 2013
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (1853 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ionizing radiation triggers diverse responses in human cells encompassing apoptosis, necrosis, stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS), autophagy, and endopolyploidy (e.g., multinucleation). Most of these responses result in loss of colony-forming ability in the clonogenic survival assay. However, not all modes of so-called clonogenic cell
[...] Read more.
Ionizing radiation triggers diverse responses in human cells encompassing apoptosis, necrosis, stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS), autophagy, and endopolyploidy (e.g., multinucleation). Most of these responses result in loss of colony-forming ability in the clonogenic survival assay. However, not all modes of so-called clonogenic cell “death” are necessarily advantageous for therapeutic outcome in cancer radiotherapy. For example, the crosstalk between SIPS and autophagy is considered to influence the capacity of the tumor cells to maintain a prolonged state of growth inhibition that unfortunately can be succeeded by tumor regrowth and disease recurrence. Likewise, endopolyploid giant cells are able to segregate into near diploid descendants that continue mitotic activities. Herein we review the current knowledge on the roles that the p53 and p21WAF1 tumor suppressors play in determining the fate of human fibroblasts (normal and Li-Fraumeni syndrome) and solid tumor-derived cells after exposure to ionizing radiation. In addition, we discuss the important role of WIP1, a p53-regulated oncogene, in the temporal regulation of the DNA damage response and its contribution to p53 dynamics post-irradiation. This article highlights the complexity of the DNA damage response and provides an impetus for rethinking the nature of cancer cell resistance to therapeutic agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
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Open AccessReview A Review of Microsatellite Markers and Their Applications in Rice Breeding Programs to Improve Blast Disease Resistance
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22499-22528; doi:10.3390/ijms141122499
Received: 12 August 2013 / Revised: 26 September 2013 / Accepted: 16 October 2013 / Published: 14 November 2013
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (405 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the last few decades, the use of molecular markers has played an increasing role in rice breeding and genetics. Of the different types of molecular markers, microsatellites have been utilized most extensively, because they can be readily amplified by PCR and the
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Over the last few decades, the use of molecular markers has played an increasing role in rice breeding and genetics. Of the different types of molecular markers, microsatellites have been utilized most extensively, because they can be readily amplified by PCR and the large amount of allelic variation at each locus. Microsatellites are also known as simple sequence repeats (SSR), and they are typically composed of 1–6 nucleotide repeats. These markers are abundant, distributed throughout the genome and are highly polymorphic compared with other genetic markers, as well as being species-specific and co-dominant. For these reasons, they have become increasingly important genetic markers in rice breeding programs. The evolution of new biotypes of pests and diseases as well as the pressures of climate change pose serious challenges to rice breeders, who would like to increase rice production by introducing resistance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent advances in rice genomics have now made it possible to identify and map a number of genes through linkage to existing DNA markers. Among the more noteworthy examples of genes that have been tightly linked to molecular markers in rice are those that confer resistance or tolerance to blast. Therefore, in combination with conventional breeding approaches, marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to monitor the presence or lack of these genes in breeding populations. For example, marker-assisted backcross breeding has been used to integrate important genes with significant biological effects into a number of commonly grown rice varieties. The use of cost-effective, finely mapped microsatellite markers and MAS strategies should provide opportunities for breeders to develop high-yield, blast resistance rice cultivars. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the linkage of microsatellite markers to rice blast resistance genes, as well as to explore the use of MAS in rice breeding programs aimed at improving blast resistance in this species. We also discuss the various advantages, disadvantages and uses of microsatellite markers relative to other molecular marker types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diagnostics)
Open AccessReview Neuroprotective Effects of Psychotropic Drugs in Huntington’s Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22558-22603; doi:10.3390/ijms141122558
Received: 19 August 2013 / Revised: 16 October 2013 / Accepted: 16 October 2013 / Published: 15 November 2013
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Psychotropics (antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, anxiolytics, etc.) are commonly prescribed to treat Huntington’s disease (HD). In HD preclinical models, while no psychotropic has convincingly affected huntingtin gene, HD modifying gene, or huntingtin protein expression, psychotropic neuroprotective effects include upregulated huntingtin autophagy (lithium),
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Psychotropics (antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, anxiolytics, etc.) are commonly prescribed to treat Huntington’s disease (HD). In HD preclinical models, while no psychotropic has convincingly affected huntingtin gene, HD modifying gene, or huntingtin protein expression, psychotropic neuroprotective effects include upregulated huntingtin autophagy (lithium), histone acetylation (lithium, valproate, lamotrigine), miR-222 (lithium-plus-valproate), mitochondrial protection (haloperidol, trifluoperazine, imipramine, desipramine, nortriptyline, maprotiline, trazodone, sertraline, venlafaxine, melatonin), neurogenesis (lithium, valproate, fluoxetine, sertraline), and BDNF (lithium, valproate, sertraline) and downregulated AP-1 DNA binding (lithium), p53 (lithium), huntingtin aggregation (antipsychotics, lithium), and apoptosis (trifluoperazine, loxapine, lithium, desipramine, nortriptyline, maprotiline, cyproheptadine, melatonin). In HD live mouse models, delayed disease onset (nortriptyline, melatonin), striatal preservation (haloperidol, tetrabenazine, lithium, sertraline), memory preservation (imipramine, trazodone, fluoxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine), motor improvement (tetrabenazine, lithium, valproate, imipramine, nortriptyline, trazodone, sertraline, venlafaxine), and extended survival (lithium, valproate, sertraline, melatonin) have been documented. Upregulated CREB binding protein (CBP; valproate, dextromethorphan) and downregulated histone deacetylase (HDAC; valproate) await demonstration in HD models. Most preclinical findings await replication and their limitations are reviewed. The most promising findings involve replicated striatal neuroprotection and phenotypic disease modification in transgenic mice for tetrabenazine and for sertraline. Clinical data consist of an uncontrolled lithium case series (n = 3) suggesting non-progression and a primarily negative double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of lamotrigine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2014)
Open AccessReview Arabidopsis Non-Coding RNA Regulation in Abiotic Stress Responses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22642-22654; doi:10.3390/ijms141122642
Received: 15 October 2013 / Revised: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 31 October 2013 / Published: 18 November 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plant growth and productivity are largely affected by environmental stresses. Therefore, plants have evolved unique adaptation mechanisms to abiotic stresses through fine-tuned adjustment of gene expression and metabolism. Recent advanced technologies, such as genome-wide transcriptome analysis, have revealed that a vast amount of
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Plant growth and productivity are largely affected by environmental stresses. Therefore, plants have evolved unique adaptation mechanisms to abiotic stresses through fine-tuned adjustment of gene expression and metabolism. Recent advanced technologies, such as genome-wide transcriptome analysis, have revealed that a vast amount of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) apart from the well-known housekeeping ncRNAs such as rRNAs, tRNAs, small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are expressed under abiotic stress conditions. These various types of ncRNAs are involved in chromatin regulation, modulation of RNA stability and translational repression during abiotic stress response. In this review, we summarize recent progress that has been made on ncRNA research in plant abiotic stress response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation by non-coding RNAs 2013)
Open AccessReview Membrane Signaling Induced by High Doses of Ionizing Radiation in the Endothelial Compartment. Relevance in Radiation Toxicity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22678-22696; doi:10.3390/ijms141122678
Received: 9 October 2013 / Revised: 1 November 2013 / Accepted: 6 November 2013 / Published: 18 November 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (408 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tumor areas can now be very precisely delimited thanks to technical progress in imaging and ballistics. This has also led to the development of novel radiotherapy protocols, delivering higher doses of ionizing radiation directly to cancer cells. Despite this, radiation toxicity in healthy
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Tumor areas can now be very precisely delimited thanks to technical progress in imaging and ballistics. This has also led to the development of novel radiotherapy protocols, delivering higher doses of ionizing radiation directly to cancer cells. Despite this, radiation toxicity in healthy tissue remains a major issue, particularly with dose-escalation in these new protocols. Acute and late tissue damage following irradiation have both been linked to the endothelium irrigating normal tissues. The molecular mechanisms involved in the endothelial response to high doses of radiation are associated with signaling from the plasma membrane, mainly via the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide pathway. This review describes this signaling pathway and discusses the relevance of targeting endothelial signaling to protect healthy tissues from the deleterious effects of high doses of radiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Radiation Toxicity in Cells)
Open AccessReview Opportunities for Live Cell FT-Infrared Imaging: Macromolecule Identification with 2D and 3D Localization
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22753-22781; doi:10.3390/ijms141122753
Received: 8 October 2013 / Revised: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 1 November 2013 / Published: 19 November 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1616 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Infrared (IR) spectromicroscopy, or chemical imaging, is an evolving technique that is poised to make significant contributions in the fields of biology and medicine. Recent developments in sources, detectors, measurement techniques and speciman holders have now made diffraction-limited Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging
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Infrared (IR) spectromicroscopy, or chemical imaging, is an evolving technique that is poised to make significant contributions in the fields of biology and medicine. Recent developments in sources, detectors, measurement techniques and speciman holders have now made diffraction-limited Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging of cellular chemistry in living cells a reality. The availability of bright, broadband IR sources and large area, pixelated detectors facilitate live cell imaging, which requires rapid measurements using non-destructive probes. In this work, we review advances in the field of FTIR spectromicroscopy that have contributed to live-cell two and three-dimensional IR imaging, and discuss several key examples that highlight the utility of this technique for studying the structure and chemistry of living cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Micro-Spectroscopy in Biological Applications)
Open AccessReview ADAR Enzyme and miRNA Story: A Nucleotide that Can Make the Difference
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22796-22816; doi:10.3390/ijms141122796
Received: 8 October 2013 / Revised: 4 November 2013 / Accepted: 5 November 2013 / Published: 19 November 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (615 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes convert adenosine (A) to inosine (I) in double-stranded (ds) RNAs. Since Inosine is read as Guanosine, the biological consequence of ADAR enzyme activity is an A/G conversion within RNA molecules. A-to-I editing events can occur on
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Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes convert adenosine (A) to inosine (I) in double-stranded (ds) RNAs. Since Inosine is read as Guanosine, the biological consequence of ADAR enzyme activity is an A/G conversion within RNA molecules. A-to-I editing events can occur on both coding and non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), which are small regulatory RNAs of ~20–23 nucleotides that regulate several cell processes by annealing to target mRNAs and inhibiting their translation. Both miRNA precursors and mature miRNAs undergo A-to-I RNA editing, affecting the miRNA maturation process and activity. ADARs can also edit 3' UTR of mRNAs, further increasing the interplay between mRNA targets and miRNAs. In this review, we provide a general overview of the ADAR enzymes and their mechanisms of action as well as miRNA processing and function. We then review the more recent findings about the impact of ADAR-mediated activity on the miRNA pathway in terms of biogenesis, target recognition, and gene expression regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation by non-coding RNAs 2013)
Open AccessReview New Insights into Functional Roles of the Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22906-22932; doi:10.3390/ijms141122906
Received: 22 September 2013 / Revised: 13 November 2013 / Accepted: 13 November 2013 / Published: 20 November 2013
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (690 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein (PTB) is an intensely studied RNA binding protein involved in several post-transcriptional regulatory events of gene expression. Initially described as a pre-mRNA splicing regulator, PTB is now widely accepted as a multifunctional protein shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm. Accordingly,
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Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein (PTB) is an intensely studied RNA binding protein involved in several post-transcriptional regulatory events of gene expression. Initially described as a pre-mRNA splicing regulator, PTB is now widely accepted as a multifunctional protein shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm. Accordingly, PTB can interact with selected RNA targets, structural elements and proteins. There is increasing evidence that PTB and its paralog PTBP2 play a major role as repressors of alternatively spliced exons, whose transcription is tissue-regulated. In addition to alternative splicing, PTB is involved in almost all steps of mRNA metabolism, including polyadenylation, mRNA stability and initiation of protein translation. Furthermore, it is well established that PTB recruitment in internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activates the translation of picornaviral and cellular proteins. Detailed studies of the structural properties of PTB have contributed to our understanding of the mechanism of RNA binding by RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) domains. In the present review, we will describe the structural properties of PTB, its paralogs and co-factors, the role in post-transcriptional regulation and actions in cell differentiation and pathogenesis. Defining the multifunctional roles of PTB will contribute to the understanding of key regulatory events in gene expression. Full article
Open AccessReview Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver: A Possible New Target for Type 2 Diabetes Prevention and Treatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22933-22966; doi:10.3390/ijms141122933
Received: 1 October 2013 / Revised: 30 October 2013 / Accepted: 8 November 2013 / Published: 20 November 2013
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder worldwide. Several lines of evidence have indicated a pathogenic role of insulin resistance, and a strong association with type 2 diabetes (T2MD) and metabolic syndrome. Importantly, NAFLD appears to enhance the risk
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder worldwide. Several lines of evidence have indicated a pathogenic role of insulin resistance, and a strong association with type 2 diabetes (T2MD) and metabolic syndrome. Importantly, NAFLD appears to enhance the risk for T2MD, as well as worsen glycemic control and cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. In turn, T2MD may promote NAFLD progression. The opportunity to take into account NAFLD in T2MD prevention and care has stimulated several clinical studies in which antidiabetic drugs, such as metformin, thiazolidinediones, GLP-1 analogues and DPP-4 inhibitors have been evaluated in NAFLD patients. In this review, we provide an overview of preclinical and clinical evidences on the possible efficacy of antidiabetic drugs in NAFLD treatment. Overall, available data suggest that metformin has beneficial effects on body weight reduction and metabolic parameters, with uncertain effects on liver histology, while pioglitazone may improve liver histology. Few data, mostly preclinical, are available on DPP4 inhibitors and GLP-1 analogues. The heterogeneity of these studies and the small number of patients do not allow for firm conclusions about treatment guidelines, and further randomized, controlled studies are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Research)
Open AccessReview Pathogenesis of Chronic Cardiorenal Syndrome: Is There a Role for Oxidative Stress?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 23011-23032; doi:10.3390/ijms141123011
Received: 3 August 2013 / Revised: 30 October 2013 / Accepted: 1 November 2013 / Published: 20 November 2013
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (535 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cardiorenal syndrome is a frequently encountered clinical condition when the dysfunction of either the heart or kidneys amplifies the failure progression of the other organ. Complex biochemical, hormonal and hemodynamic mechanisms underlie the development of cardiorenal syndrome. Both in vitro and experimental studies
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Cardiorenal syndrome is a frequently encountered clinical condition when the dysfunction of either the heart or kidneys amplifies the failure progression of the other organ. Complex biochemical, hormonal and hemodynamic mechanisms underlie the development of cardiorenal syndrome. Both in vitro and experimental studies have identified several dysregulated pathways in heart failure and in chronic kidney disease that lead to increased oxidative stress. A decrease in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism has been reported in cardiomyocytes during heart failure. This is balanced by a compensatory increase in glucose uptake and glycolysis with consequent decrease in myocardial ATP content. In the kidneys, both NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial metabolism are important sources of TGF-β1-induced cellular ROS. NOX-dependent oxidative activation of transcription factors such as NF-kB and c-jun leads to increased expression of renal target genes (phospholipaseA2, MCP-1 and CSF-1, COX-2), thus contributing to renal interstitial fibrosis and inflammation. In the present article, we postulate that, besides contributing to both cardiac and renal dysfunction, increased oxidative stress may also play a crucial role in cardiorenal syndrome development and progression. In particular, an imbalance between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, the sympathetic nervous system, and inflammation may favour cardiorenal syndrome through an excessive oxidative stress production. This article also discusses novel therapeutic strategies for their potential use in the treatment of patients affected by cardiorenal syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease)
Open AccessReview Nutraceuticals: Potential for Chondroprotection and Molecular Targeting of Osteoarthritis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 23063-23085; doi:10.3390/ijms141123063
Received: 16 August 2013 / Revised: 30 October 2013 / Accepted: 1 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease and a leading cause of adult disability. There is no cure for OA, and no effective treatments which arrest or slow its progression. Current pharmacologic treatments such as analgesics may improve pain relief but do not
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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease and a leading cause of adult disability. There is no cure for OA, and no effective treatments which arrest or slow its progression. Current pharmacologic treatments such as analgesics may improve pain relief but do not alter OA disease progression. Prolonged consumption of these drugs can result in severe adverse effects. Given the nature of OA, life-long treatment will likely be required to arrest or slow its progression. Consequently, there is an urgent need for OA disease-modifying therapies which also improve symptoms and are safe for clinical use over long periods of time. Nutraceuticals—food or food products that provide medical or health benefits, including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease—offer not only favorable safety profiles, but may exert disease- and symptom-modification effects in OA. Forty-seven percent of OA patients use alternative medications, including nutraceuticals. This review will overview the efficacy and mechanism of action of commonly used nutraceuticals, discuss recent experimental and clinical data on the effects of select nutraceuticals, such as phytoflavonoids, polyphenols, and bioflavonoids on OA, and highlight their known molecular actions and limitations of their current use. We will conclude with a proposed novel nutraceutical-based molecular targeting strategy for chondroprotection and OA treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chondrocyte Phenotype in Cartilage Biology)
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Open AccessReview Let-7 in Cardiovascular Diseases, Heart Development and Cardiovascular Differentiation from Stem Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 23086-23102; doi:10.3390/ijms141123086
Received: 24 September 2013 / Revised: 30 October 2013 / Accepted: 4 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (654 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The let-7 family is the second microRNA found in C. elegans. Recent researches have found it is highly expressed in the cardiovascular system. Studies have revealed the aberrant expression of let-7 members in cardiovascular diseases, such as heart hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, dilated
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The let-7 family is the second microRNA found in C. elegans. Recent researches have found it is highly expressed in the cardiovascular system. Studies have revealed the aberrant expression of let-7 members in cardiovascular diseases, such as heart hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), myocardial infarction (MI), arrhythmia, angiogenesis, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. Let-7 also participates in cardiovascular differentiation of embryonic stem cells. TLR4, LOX-1, Bcl-xl and AGO1 are by now the identified target genes of let-7. The circulating let-7b is suspected to be the biomarker of acute MI and let-7i, the biomarker of DCM. Further studies are necessary for identifying the gene targets and signaling pathways of let-7 in cardiovascular diseases. Let-7 might be a potential therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases. This review focuses on the research progresses regarding the roles of let-7 in cardiovascular development and diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessReview Oxidative Stress Mechanisms Underlying Parkinson’s Disease-Associated Neurodegeneration in C. elegans
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 23103-23128; doi:10.3390/ijms141123103
Received: 14 August 2013 / Revised: 8 October 2013 / Accepted: 16 October 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (311 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oxidative stress is thought to play a significant role in the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Although it is currently considered a hallmark of such processes, the interweaving of a multitude of signaling cascades hinders complete understanding of the direct role of
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Oxidative stress is thought to play a significant role in the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Although it is currently considered a hallmark of such processes, the interweaving of a multitude of signaling cascades hinders complete understanding of the direct role of oxidative stress in neurodegeneration. In addition to its extensive use as an aging model, some researchers have turned to the invertebrate model Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) in order to further investigate molecular mediators that either exacerbate or protect against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated neurodegeneration. Due to their fully characterized genome and short life cycle, rapid generation of C. elegans genetic models can be useful to study upstream markers of oxidative stress within interconnected signaling pathways. This report will focus on the roles of C. elegans homologs for the oxidative stress-associated transcription factor Nrf2, as well as the autosomal recessive, early-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD)-associated proteins Parkin, DJ-1, and PINK1, in neurodegenerative processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Molecular Research in Neurotoxicology)

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Open AccessShort Note Effects of Polymorphisms in Pepsinogen (PEP), Amylase (AMY) and Trypsin (TRY) Genes on Food Habit Domestication Traits in Mandarin Fish
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21504-21512; doi:10.3390/ijms141121504
Received: 9 September 2013 / Revised: 10 October 2013 / Accepted: 18 October 2013 / Published: 30 October 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (196 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) have a peculiar feeding habit of only accepting live fish prey and refusing dead prey and artificial diets. However, previous research has shown that some individuals accept dead prey after gradual domestication. Digestive enzymes are correlated with
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Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) have a peculiar feeding habit of only accepting live fish prey and refusing dead prey and artificial diets. However, previous research has shown that some individuals accept dead prey after gradual domestication. Digestive enzymes are correlated with feeding habits in fish. In the current study, SNPs in the mandarin fish genes for pepsinogen (PEP), amylase (AMY), and trypsin (TRY) were evaluated for associations with feeding habits in domesticated mandarin fish by scanning their complete genomic sequence. In total, two SNPs were found in PEP, one was found in TRY, and none were found in AMY. The D1(CTCC) and D5(TTTT) diplotypes in the PEP gene tended to show strong effects on the feeding habits of domesticated fish (p < 0.01). The results indicate that PEP may be associated with the genetic mechanism for feeding habits in mandarin fish, and the D1(CTCC) and D5(TTTT) diplotypes in the PEP gene may be useful markers for selecting mandarin fish with appropriate feeding habits for domestication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)

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