Next Article in Journal
MicroRNA-Regulated Pathways in Hematological Malignancies: How to Avoid Cells Playing Out of Tune
Previous Article in Journal
Boronic Acid-Based Approach for Separation and Immobilization of Glycoproteins and Its Application in Sensing

Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(10), 20913-20929; doi:10.3390/ijms141020913

Article
Overexpression of Ferredoxin, PETF, Enhances Tolerance to Heat Stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Yi-Hsien Lin 1, Kui-You Pan 2, Ching-Hui Hung 3, Hsiang-En Huang 4, Ching-Lian Chen 3, Teng-Yung Feng 3 and Li-Fen Huang 2,*
1
Department of Plant Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912, Taiwan; E-Mail: yhlin@mail.npust.edu.tw
2
Graduate School of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan; E-Mail: pku07216@gmail.com
3
Institute of Plant and Microbial Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan; E-Mails: u100030056@cmu.edu.tw (C.-H.H.); ai0926@hotmail.com (C.-L.C.); natfarm@sinica.edu.tw (T.-Y.F.)
4
Department of Life Science, National Taitung University, Taitung 684, Taiwan; E-Mail: hhn@nttu.edu.tw
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: hlf326@saturn.yzu.edu.tw; Tel.: +886-3-4638800 (ext. 2189); Fax: +886-3-4334667.
Received: 31 August 2013; in revised form: 10 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 October 2013 /
Published: 17 October 2013

Abstract

: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by plants in adverse environments can cause damage to organelles and trigger cell death. Removal of excess ROS can be achieved through the ascorbate scavenger pathway to prevent plant cell death. The amount of this scavenger can be regulated by ferredoxin (FDX). Chloroplastic FDXs are electron transfer proteins that perform in distributing photosynthetic reducing power. In this study, we demonstrate that overexpression of the endogenous photosynthetic FDX gene, PETF, in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii could raise the level of reduced ascorbate and diminish H2O2 levels under normal growth conditions. Furthermore, the overexpressing PETF transgenic Chlamydomonas lines produced low levels of H2O2 and exhibited protective effects that were observed through decreased chlorophyll degradation and increased cell survival under heat-stress conditions. The findings of this study suggest that overexpression of PETF can increase the efficiency of ROS scavenging in chloroplasts to confer heat tolerance. The roles of PETF in the downregulation of the ROS level offer a method for potentially improving the tolerance of crops against heat stress.
Keywords:
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; ferredoxin; PETF; heat tolerance; ascorbate

1. Introduction

Excessive greenhouse gas emissions from human activities raise the global temperature, and high ambient temperatures lead to biochemical and physiological changes in plants, thereby affecting plant growth and development. High temperatures cause protein denaturation and aggregation, inhibiting protein function and compromising membrane integrity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are subsequently generated when high-energy state electrons are released from heat-disrupted membrane-associated processes such as photosynthesis [1,2]. ROS are highly reactive and toxic, and they can cause oxidative damage to cells [3,4]. To counter the threat of oxidative damage under various environmental stresses, plants have developed ROS-scavenging mechanisms to eliminate ROS [5,6]. By combining antioxidant enzymes with antioxidants, plant cells can detoxify hydrogen peroxide and superoxide [7,8]. Several pieces of evidence indicate that antioxidant enzymes and antioxidants are associated with the plant heat tolerance [7,912].

Ferredoxins (FDXs) in chloroplasts are electron transfer proteins that deliver reducing equivalents from photosystem I (PSI) in photosynthetic organisms [13]. Electrons from reduced FDXs are accepted by FDX-NADPH-oxidoreductase (FNR) to generate NADPH, which is required for carbon assimilation in the Calvin cycle [14,15]. FDXs can also donate electrons to nitrite reductase (NiR), sulfite reductase (SiR) and fatty acid desaturases (FADs) for nitrogen and sulfur assimilation as well as fatty acid desaturation [16,17]. In addition, FDXs are key regulators of FDX-thioredoxin reductase (FTR) in thioredoxin systems [14]. Moreover, FDXs are components in the water-water cycle, a ROS-scavenging pathway, and generate ascorbate and peroxiredoxin to protect the photosynthetic apparatus [1820].

FDX transcripts have been observed to decrease under drought, cold, or salt stress conditions in Arabidopsis [21]. The amount of FDX is also decreased in tobacco under various stresses [22]. Decreasing FDX by antisense RNA in transgenic plants causes leaf yellowing under high light stress, and the ROS level is increased in FDXs-limiting plants [23,24]. These results suggest that the expression of FDXs is down regulated by abiotic stress, resulting in increased the ROS level and subsequent oxidative damage to cells. In addition, ectopic expression of a cyanobacterial flavodoxin, which is a functional analog of FDXs found in cyanobacteria and some algae, decreases the ROS level in transgenic tobacco and enhances plant tolerance to heat, high light, chilling, drought, UV radiation, and iron starvation [22,25,26]. However, ectopic expression of a cyanobacterial FDX in tobacco chloroplasts does not improve the tolerance of transgenic plants to oxidative and chilling stresses [27]. Although the level of foreign cyanobacterial FDX has been shown to decrease in the manner of an endogenous FDX in transgenic tobacco under stress [27], whether FDX functions under adverse environment stresses remains uncertain.

The single-celled green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an excellent photosynthetic model organism for examining physiological responses of cells under abiotic stresses [28]. Recent studies on hydrogen production by FDXs and hydrogenase in Chlamydomonas have proposed methods for potentially generating clean energy [2931]. Previous studies have shown that Chlamydomonas contains six FDXs, PETF, and FDX2—FDX6 [32,33]. Although the expression levels of PETF, and FDX2FDX6 vary under hypoxia, iron- and copper-deficient conditions [34], PETF is a major photosynthetic ferredoxin in chloroplasts and performs a function in electron transfers between PSI and FNR [34,35]. In this study, we generated transgenic Chlamydomonas overexpressing PETF to clarify whether increasing FDX gene expression levels enhance the tolerance of algae to heat stress.

2. Results

2.1. Generation and Characterizations of Transgenic Lines Overexpressing

PETF Using an electroporation transformation system, three transgenic Chlamydomonas lines, P1-5, P1-7 and P1-10, carrying a recombinant Chlamydomonas FDX gene, PETF, under the control of constitutive β2-tubulin promoter (PT), were generated (Figure 1A). The PT::PETF transgene was detected in all three PETF-transgenic lines by using genomic DNA PCR (Figure 1B). Furthermore, the levels of total PETF mRNA in all three transgenic lines were 1.7- to 2.7-fold higher than that of the non-transgenic line (CC125), as shown using quantitative RT-PCR (Figure 1C). Cellular protein extracts were probed with an antiserum of PFLP, a photosynthetic type FDX isolated from sweet pepper [36], however, no signal was detected, possibly because of its low affinity to the Chlamydomonas FDXs.

Ascorbate is one of the major antioxidant metabolites in plant tissues. To determine whether the ratios of reduced ascorbate were effected by ectopic expression of PT::PETF, the late-log phase cell cultures of transgenic lines were collected and subjected to measurement of ascorbate. The result showed that the ratios of reduced ascorbate in the P1-5, P1-7, and P1-10 lines were higher than that of CC125 (Figure 1D).

Chloroplasts are known to be the main targets of ROS-related damage under environmental stresses [37]. To determine whether ectopic expression of PT::PETF affects growth rate and chlorophyll content, the doubling time and chlorophyll content of the transgenic lines were measured. Under normal growth conditions, the doubling time was 11.5 h for CC125 C. reinhardtii and 12.0–12.3 h for transgenic lines (Figure 2A). The contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll were not significantly different between non-transgenic and transgenic C. reinhardtii under normal conditions (Figure 2B and Table 1). These results suggested that overexpression of PETF did not significantly change growth behaviors.

2.2. Overexpression of PETF in Chlamydomonas Enhances Stress Tolerance to Heat

Hema et al. reported that a growth temperature of 42 °C markedly inhibited the growth of C. reinhardtii cells [28]. To determine whether PETF provided protection under heat stress, we compared the survival rates of the PT::PETF transgenic lines with those of non-transformant lines under heat-stress. Cells were subjected to heat treatment at 42 °C for 40 min and recovered for 2 days. The cell viability of the non-transgenic line, CC125, dropped from 97.1% to 50% (Figure 3A). In addition, the color of the culture changed from greenish to yellowish, and the chlorophyll contents decreased immediately after heat treatment (Figure 3B and Table 1). By contrast, the survival rate of the PT::PETF transgenic lines was maintained at 85% (Figure 3C). The chlorophyll contents indicated that there are no significant difference for PT:PETF transgenic lines grown under normal and heat-stress conditions (Table 1). These results showed that over-expression of the PETF gene apparently increased the survival rates of C. reinhardtii under heat stress.

2.3. Accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Is Reduced in Transgenic Lines Overexpressing PETF

High temperature is a type of oxidative stress that induces ROS to cause oxidative damage in plant cells [2], and FDX participates in ROS scavenging by reducing ascorbate [18]. The PT::PETF transgenic lines showed an approximately 2-fold increase in survival rates after heat treatment at 42 °C for 40 min (Figure 3C). A cell permeable fluorogenic dye, 2′,7′-dichorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA), was used to detect ROS by confocal microscopy. The chlorophyll autofluorescence signal was used as an indicator for detecting chloroplasts. As shown in Figure 4A, no ROS signal was detected in either the non-transgenic or transgenic lines under normal growth conditions. However, after heat treatment, the level of the ROS fluorescent signal increased and chlorophyll image declined in the non-transgenic cells, whereas a low level of the ROS signal was observed, and the chlorophyll fluorescence signals remained stable in the P1-10 cells (Figure 4B). These results indicated that the increase of PETF in a cell could reduce ROS accumulation and prevent chlorophyll degradation under heat treatment. Furthermore, the content of H2O2, a major species of ROS, was measured after heat treatment. Although the amount of H2O2 increased in both CC125 and transformants after heat treatment, H2O2 concentration was significantly lower in the transgenic lines than in the heat-treated non-transgenic cells (Figure 4C). These results showed that ROS, including the major species H2O2, were significantly reduced in the PETF-transgenic lines, regardless of heat treatment.

2.4. Expression of PETF Correlates Positively to Thermotolerance Ability in Transgenic Lines

To demonstrate whether an increase in thermotolerance ability in transgenic lines is correlated to the PETF expression level, the mRNA quantity of PETF was measured using quantitative RT-PCR. After heat treatment, PETF mRNA in the non-transgenic lines was reduced by approximately 32% compared with normal growth conditions (Figure 5A). However, PETF mRNA in three transgenic lines remained at a high level after heat treatment. As shown in Figure 5B, the relative levels of PETF mRNA in P1-5, P1-7 and P1-10 were 177%, 123% and 245%, respectively, compared with those of the non-transgenic line (Figure 4D). The P1-10 line accumulated the highest level of PETF mRNA (Figure 4D) and exhibited the highest survival rate under heat treatment (Figure 3C) among the three transgenic lines. These results indicated that the levels of PETF transcripts were positively correlated with the thermotolerance ability in the transgenic Chlamydomonas lines.

3. Discussion

Reduction of ROS level is a major biotechnology strategy used to protect plants from various abiotic stresses [3840]. In the study reported herein, ROS produced by C. reinhardtii cause oxidative damage, which results in cell death under heat treatment at 42 °C for 40 min. Three Chlamydomonas transgenic lines overexpressing PETF were generated, and ROS levels in these transgenic lines were significantly reduced even after heat treatment. These transgenic algae presented highly thermotolerant phenotypes that are correlated to the transgene PETF expression levels. These findings indicate that overexpression of the PETF gene decreases ROS levels and contributes to the tolerance of heat stress. However, plant responses to heat stress are highly complex, and have effects on protein denaturation, membrane destabilization, metabolic equilibration, and redox homeostasis [9,41]. Integration of different protective mechanisms contributes to plant tolerance under heat stress, and the complex protective networks can be facilitated by overexpression of PETF.

The Chlamydomonas genome contains six ferrdoxin (FDX) genes and the expression of each FDX gene is responsive to different environmental stress and nutrient conditions [34]. For example, transcription of FDX2 was upregulated by H2O2, although the FDX2 protein was rapidly damaged after H2O2 treatment. On the other hand, the expression of the FDX5 transcript was responsive to O2, copper, and nickel supplementation [34]. The most abundant FDX transcript found in Chlamydomonas grown in TAP medium under normal growth condition is PETF, and its expression remains constitutive in most tested conditions, including under H2O2 treatment [34]. In this study, it was demonstrated that PETF mRNA decreased slightly after heat treatment, and Terauchi et al. (2009) showed that PETF protein is not significantly degraded under oxidative stresses [34]. Therefore, it was proposed that high-level PETF mRNA can be maintained and translated to functional PETF, which contributes to transgenic algae resistant to heat stress. Moreover, it is known that monodehydroascorbate (MDA) is a major sink of photosynthetic electrons and can be reduced to ascorbate by FDX in cells [28,37]. Our results showed that the ratios of reduced ascorbate in the P1-5, P1-7, and P1-10 lines were higher than that of CC125 (Figure 1D), suggesting that the PETF-transgenic lines contained more functional PETF and reduced more ascorbate than the non-transgenic line did.

In this study, three transgenic lines of Chlamydomonas expressing the PETF gene were obtained. The growth curve and chlorophyll content of transgenic lines did not have significant differences compared to that of non-transgenic lines under normal growth conditions. However, after heat treatment, the survival rates of PETF-overexpressing lines increased significantly compared to that of non-transgenic line. In addition, chloroplasts in transgenic cells remained intact and exhibited little chlorophyll content decrease after heat treatment. Interestingly, chlorophyll b (Chl b) was more protected than chlorophyll a (Chl a) in transgenic lines. This report indicated that maintenance of chlorophylls by PETF would protect Chlamydomonas against heat stress. However, the mechanism of PETF-mediated chlorophylls protection needs further investigation. Plant membrane systems including thylakoid membrane are known as direct targets of ROS under heat stress [1]. Biosynthesis and degradation of chlorophyll determine the amount of chlorophyll present, and both processes are known to require FDX-dependent enzymes in plants [4246]. Chlorophylls and their binding proteins form complexes when they are inserted into thylakoid membranes. When chlorophyll–protein complexes are dissociated, chlorophyll molecules enter the degradation pathway [47]. Therefore, there is a strong correlation between thylakoid membrane stability and chlorophyll degradation under heat conditions. Moreover, several reports showed that degree of lipid saturation in membranes increases in plants under high temperature and thus reduces membrane stability [48,49]. Saturated fatty acid containing membrane glycerolipids are converted to unsaturated fatty acid by desaturases in plastids and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) [50,51], and the plastid desaturases required FDX to provide electrons for fatty acid desaturation [42]. It is possible that overexpression of PETF facilitates electron donation to desaturase for desaturation of fatty acids, and hence maintains membrane stability and chlorophyll content under heat stresses.

Chl b is synthesized from and can be reconverted to Chl a. The levels of Chl b are determined by the activity of three enzyme reactions; conversion of Chl a to Chl b by chlorophyllide a oxygenase (CAO), conversion of Chl b to 7-hydroxymethyl Chl a (HMChl a) by Chl b reductase (CBR), and conversion of HMChl a to Chl a by 7-hydroxymethyl-chlorophyll reductase (HCAR) [52]. The CAO has been suggested to accept electrons from FDX to convert Chl a to Chl b, and both CBR and HCAR are FDX-dependent enzymes [42]. Overexpression of PETF in transgenic lines showed no alteration in levels of Chl a and Chl b, compared to the wild type, and it suggested that PETF contributes equally to both sides of conversion under normal growth condition. Chl b degradation is primarily performed via conversion of Chl a by CBR and HCAR and followed by two FDX-dependent enzymes, Pheide a oxygenase (PAO) and RCC reductase (RCCR) [42]. It is proposed that PETF favors electron donation to PAO and RCCR, and accelerates Chl a degradation; therefore Chl b was protected more than Chl a in transgenic lines under heat stresses.

Mitochondria and chloroplasts have been clearly recognized as main sources of ROS in plant cells [53]. In chloroplasts, increased levels of ROS are produced under adverse environmental conditions, such as drought, salt, high temperature and high-light, causing stress through the photosynthetic electron-transport chain (PETC) due to unsmooth electron flow [5355]. In this study, the major ferredoxin PETF was overexpressed in expectations of reducing overproduction of high-energy electrons from PETC in Chlamydomonas cells under heat stress and then decreasing ROS production to prevent cell damage. Consequently, transgenic algae overexpressing PETF showed thermotolerance. Indeed, overexpression of chloroplast FNR, which is involved in the last step of PETC, increased tolerance to oxidative stress in tobacco [56]. In addition, ectopic expression of a prokaryotic flavodoxin, an electron carrier flavoprotein not found in plants, targeted to chloroplast in transgenic tobacco plants is shown to increase tolerance against various abiotic stress [22]. Similar hypotheses were tested in mitochondria of the mammalian cell line Cos-7 cells and results showed that ectopic expressed heterologous FNR and flavodoxin can protect Cos-7 cells against oxidative stress [57]. On the other hand, ferredoxin can transfer electrons to generate ascorbate, which is employed by ascorbate peroxidase (APX) to scavenge H2O2[18,20,58,59]. Although electrons from ferredoxin can provide an alternative sink to generate O2 from O2 in the Mehler reaction, the reducing power of ferredoxin also acts for ascorbate reduction [60]. Results aforementioned indicated that transgenic Chlamydomonas lines overexpressing PETF generated more reduced ascorbate than non-transgenic algae did, and it can donate electrons in ascorbate-mediated ROS scavenging to detoxify ROS generated under heat stress in chloroplast.

4. Experimental Section

4.1. Cultivation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Wild-type strain CC125 and PETF-transgenic lines were grown in TAP medium [61] under a continuous light (125 μE m−2 s−1) at 25 °C. Cell density was counted using a standard hemocytometer. The doubling time and growth curve were determined by methods described by Stern et al. [62].

4.2. Construction of Plasmids

To construct a plasmid for constitute expressing the PETF gene, a promoter region of β2-tubulin gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers B2T-F: 5′-CGGGTACCGAATTVGATATCAAGCTTC-3′ (KpnI site underlined) and B2T-R: 5′-GGGCCCGTTTGCGGGTTGTG-3′ (ApaI site underlined) from pHYG3 [63]. The amplified DNA fragment was digested with KpnI and ApaI, and then ligated into pHYG3 to generate pHyG3-B2T. The PETF cDNA fragment was amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with cPETF-F: 5′-GGGCCGGGCCCATGGCCATGGCTATGCGCTC-3′ (ApaI site underlined) and cPETF-R: 5′-ACCATACATATGTTAGTACAGGGCCTCCTCCTG-3′ (NdeI site underlined). The PCR product was digested with ApaI and NdeI, and ligated into pHYG3-B2T to generate pHYG3-PETF.

4.3. Gene Transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

Electroporation protocol of the method as described [64] was performed for cell transformation. Late log phase algal cell culture was quickly collected and washed with 10% Tween-20. Then, the cell pellet was resuspended with TAP broth containing 40 mM of sucrose. Before electroporation, cells were mixed with ScaI-digested linear form DNA of plasmid pHYG3-PETF. The mixture was transferred into a 4-mm gap electroporation cuvette at 10 °C. The electric pulse conditions were 2000 V/cm, 25 μF, and 500 Ω. After electroporation, cells were transferred to TAP broth medium and incubated at 25 °C for 72 h. The putative transgenic lines were screened on TAP plate with 20 μg/mL of hygromycin. All of the putative PETF-transgenic cell lines were confirmed by genomic PCR with primers 2201F (5′-CCACTTCTACACAGGCCACT-3′) and 3071R (5′-GGGCGACACGGAAATGTTG-3′).

4.4. Heat Treatment and Cell Survival Determination

For heat stress treatment, a single colony was incubated in TAP broth. The cell cultures with concentration of 3 × 106 cell/mL were subjected to treatment at 42 °C under continuous light (125 μE m−2 s−1) for 40 min, and then recovered for an additional 72 h under continuous light at 25 °C. The cell survival rate was determined by trypan blue staining analysis [65]. The cell suspension was mixed with an equal volume of 0.4% (w/v) trypan blue solution. The numbers of unstained living cells (Nu) and total cells (Nt) were counted using a hemocytometer, and the survival rate was determined to be Nu/Nt × 100%.

4.5. Quantitative RT-PCR

Total RNA was isolated by using a plant total RNA kit (Viogene, Taipei, Taiwan). The cDNA was synthesized using Transcriptor First Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Roche, Penzberg, Germany) from 1 μg of total RNA. To measure the total PETF transcripts in PETF-transgenic and non-transgenic lines, quantitative PCR was performed by 7500 Fast Real-Time PCR Systems (Applied Biosystem, Foster City, CA, USA). Primers Re-PETF-F (5′-TGAGTGCCCCGCTGACACCT-3′) and Re-PETF-R (5′-GCACCAGCGCGGCAAGAGTA-3′) were designed for amplifying PETF transcripts. The Cblp gene encodes for G-protein beta subunit-like polypeptide is constitutively expressed in C. reinhardtii [47]. Primers Re-Cblp-F (5′-ACCTGGAGAGCAAGAGCATCGT-3′) and Re-Cblp-R (5′-TGCTGGTGATGTTGAACTCGG-3′) were designed according to its sequence (Genbank: X53574.1) for amplifying Cblp transcripts as an internal control.

4.6. Determination of Ascorbate Content

The amounts of reduced ascorbate (Ar) and total ascorbate pool (At) were measured as described with modification [66]. The total 3 × 106 algal cells were collected and homogenized with a steel ball after freezing in liquid nitrogen. One milliliter of 6% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) was added to resuspend the algal extracts, which were centrifuged, and the supernatant was used for determining the ascorbate content. For determining the amount of At, 100 μL of supernatant was mixed with 50 μL of 100 mM dithiothreitol and 50 μL of a 75 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The mixture was incubated at room temperature for 30 min. For determining the amount of Ar, 100 μL of supernatant was added with 50 μL of deionized water and 50 μL of a 75 mM phosphate buffer for 30 min. The mixtures were then reacted with a reaction buffer (250 μL of 10% TCA, 200 μL of 43% H3PO4, 200 μL of 4% α-α′-bipyridyl and 100 μL of 3% FeCl3) at 37 °C for 1 h. The ascorbate concentrations were determined by the absorbance at 525 nm according to the standard curve made by 0.15–10 mM of ascorbate (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) standards in 6% TCA. The ratio of reduced ascorbate in total ascorbate pools was calculated at (Ar/At) × 100%.

4.7. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Detection and H2O2 Measurement

Two methods were used to quantify ROS formation. The first is semi-quantification using ROS staining [67], and the second is H2O2 quantification. For ROS staining, cells were stained with 10 μM of 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) for 20 min and then subjected to a confocal laser-scanning microscopy (LSM 510 META, Zeiss, Jena, Germany). Signals of H2DCFDA and autofluorescence of chlorophyll were visualized with excitation at 488 nm and emissions at 500–530 nm and 650–710 nm, respectively.

For H2O2 measurement, cells were treated with reagents of an Amplex Red Hydrogen Peroxide/Peroxidase Assay Kit (Molecular Probes/ Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA). In brief, a total of 3 × 106 algal cells in log phase were collected by centrifugation, and the pellet was frozen in liquid nitrogen and ground using a steel ball. The cell debris was dissolved in a 100 μL of a 1× reaction buffer in the assay kit. The mixture was centrifuged and the supernatant was then used to measure the cellular H2O2 concentrations after incubation with horseradish peroxidase at 25 °C for 30 min. The H2O2 concentrations were determined by the standard curve developed using 0.2–1.0 μM of H2O2 standards. Data were collected with five repeats and statistically analyzed using Duncan’s multiple range test.

4.8. Determination of Chlorophyll Content

Chlamydomonas cells in log phase (total 3 × 106 cells) were collected and resuspended in 1 mL of 80% acetone. After centrifugation, the chlorophyll content of the supernatant was measured according to optical absorbance at 663 nm and 645 nm by using a U-2001 spectrophotometer (Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan). The chlorophyll content was determined by the following Equations (1)(3) [68]:

Chlorophyll  a ( μ g / mL ) = ( 22.9 × A 645 ) - ( 4.68 × A 663 )
chlorophyll  b ( μ g / mL ) = ( 12.7 × A 663 ) - ( 2.698 × A 645 )
total chlorophyll  ( μ g / mL ) = chlorophyll  a + chlorophyll  b = ( 20.2 × A 645 ) + ( 8.02 × A 663 )

5. Conclusions

In this study, we generated transgenic Chlamydomonas overexpressing PETF to show that increasing FDX gene expression levels enhance the tolerance of algae to heat stress. Based on the expression levels of PETF transcripts, ascorbate content, H2O2 content, chlorophyll content, and survival rates, we concluded that PETF can enhance tolerance to heat stress in Chlamydomonas. These findings imply that the enhancement of crop tolerant to heat stress can be achieved by the regulation of ferredoxin.

Ijms 14 20913f1a 1024
Figure 1. Characterizations of transgenic Chlamydomonas overexpressing PETF. (A) A diagram of the recombinant plasmid, pHYG3-PETF, prepared for electroporation. The coding sequence of the PETF gene was ligated to the sequence of β2-tubulin promoter (PT) to generate pHYG3-PETF. The transformants harboring the aph7 gene can be screened using hygromycin; (B) To confirm putative transformants, primers 2201F and 3071R were used to amplify a part of PT::PETF and were labeled as PETF. Cblp was amplified as an internal control for genomic DNA; (C) The relative expression level of the PETF transcripts of algal lines under control treatment. The total mRNA transcripts obtained from foreign and endogenous PETF genes were quantified using primers Re-PETF-F and Re-PETF-R by qPCR. As shown above the column, the relative expression levels of the PETF transcripts were compared with those of the Cblp transcripts, and were normalized according to the value of CC125 under normal growth conditions; (D) Ratios of reduced ascorbate in Chlamydomonas cellular extract under normal growth conditions. The contents of ascorbate in the late-log phase cell cultures were measured. The ratios presented are the percentages of reduced ascorbate in total ascorbate pools of cells. Error bars indicate the standard deviation of the mean of ascorbate ratios in the cells for five repeats, and letters on the columns indicate the significant differences based on the Duncan’s multiple range test (p < 0.05). CC125 is a non-transformant cell line, and P1-5, P1-7 and P1-10 are Chlamydomonas transgenic cell lines.

Click here to enlarge figure

Figure 1. Characterizations of transgenic Chlamydomonas overexpressing PETF. (A) A diagram of the recombinant plasmid, pHYG3-PETF, prepared for electroporation. The coding sequence of the PETF gene was ligated to the sequence of β2-tubulin promoter (PT) to generate pHYG3-PETF. The transformants harboring the aph7 gene can be screened using hygromycin; (B) To confirm putative transformants, primers 2201F and 3071R were used to amplify a part of PT::PETF and were labeled as PETF. Cblp was amplified as an internal control for genomic DNA; (C) The relative expression level of the PETF transcripts of algal lines under control treatment. The total mRNA transcripts obtained from foreign and endogenous PETF genes were quantified using primers Re-PETF-F and Re-PETF-R by qPCR. As shown above the column, the relative expression levels of the PETF transcripts were compared with those of the Cblp transcripts, and were normalized according to the value of CC125 under normal growth conditions; (D) Ratios of reduced ascorbate in Chlamydomonas cellular extract under normal growth conditions. The contents of ascorbate in the late-log phase cell cultures were measured. The ratios presented are the percentages of reduced ascorbate in total ascorbate pools of cells. Error bars indicate the standard deviation of the mean of ascorbate ratios in the cells for five repeats, and letters on the columns indicate the significant differences based on the Duncan’s multiple range test (p < 0.05). CC125 is a non-transformant cell line, and P1-5, P1-7 and P1-10 are Chlamydomonas transgenic cell lines.
Ijms 14 20913f1a 1024Ijms 14 20913f1b 1024
Ijms 14 20913f2 1024
Figure 2. Growth curves and chlorophyll contents of transgenic Chlamydomonas overexpressing PETF under normal growth conditions. (A) The growth curves of non-transgenic (CC125) and PETF-transgenic lines (P1-5, P1-7, and P1-10) under normal growth conditions; (B) The chlorophyll contents of all algal lines. Error bars indicate the standard deviation of the mean for five repeats of cell suspensions, and letters on the columns indicate significant differences based on Duncan’s multiple range test (p < 0.05).

Click here to enlarge figure

Figure 2. Growth curves and chlorophyll contents of transgenic Chlamydomonas overexpressing PETF under normal growth conditions. (A) The growth curves of non-transgenic (CC125) and PETF-transgenic lines (P1-5, P1-7, and P1-10) under normal growth conditions; (B) The chlorophyll contents of all algal lines. Error bars indicate the standard deviation of the mean for five repeats of cell suspensions, and letters on the columns indicate significant differences based on Duncan’s multiple range test (p < 0.05).
Ijms 14 20913f2 1024
Ijms 14 20913f3 1024
Figure 3. Impact of heat stress on survival rates and chlorophyll contents in Chlamydomonas overexpressing PETF. (A) Survival rate of Chlamydomonas CC125, after a 2 day recovery from heat treatment at 42 °C for 40 min; (B) Chlamydomonas cell cultures were imaged, and the total chlorophyll contents were measured immediately after heat treatment; (C) Survival rate comparison between non-transformant and PETF overexpression lines after heat treatment. The heat-treated cell cultures were incubated under normal growth conditions for 72 h prior to measuring the survival rate. Then the survival rates of the non-transgenic CC125 and transgenic lines (P1-5, P1-7, and P1-10) were measured using trypan blue staining, and the cell count of CC125 without heat treatment was determined to be 100%. Error bars indicate standard deviations of the mean for five repeats of each line, and letters indicate the significant differences based on Duncan’s multiple range test (p < 0.05).

Click here to enlarge figure

Figure 3. Impact of heat stress on survival rates and chlorophyll contents in Chlamydomonas overexpressing PETF. (A) Survival rate of Chlamydomonas CC125, after a 2 day recovery from heat treatment at 42 °C for 40 min; (B) Chlamydomonas cell cultures were imaged, and the total chlorophyll contents were measured immediately after heat treatment; (C) Survival rate comparison between non-transformant and PETF overexpression lines after heat treatment. The heat-treated cell cultures were incubated under normal growth conditions for 72 h prior to measuring the survival rate. Then the survival rates of the non-transgenic CC125 and transgenic lines (P1-5, P1-7, and P1-10) were measured using trypan blue staining, and the cell count of CC125 without heat treatment was determined to be 100%. Error bars indicate standard deviations of the mean for five repeats of each line, and letters indicate the significant differences based on Duncan’s multiple range test (p < 0.05).
Ijms 14 20913f3 1024
Ijms 14 20913f4 1024
Figure 4. ROS and H2O2 accumulation in Chlamydomonas overexpressing PETF under heat treatment. (A) ROS accumulation of cells under control treatment; (B) ROS accumulation of cells under heat treatment. For the heat treatment, non-transgenic CC125 and transgenic P1-10 were incubated at 42 °C for 40 min and stained with H2DCFDA to monitor the accumulation of cellular ROS. ROS: images of red pseudocolor indicate the existence of stained ROS. CHL: images of green pseudocolor indicate the autofluorescence of chlorophyll. MER indicates the superimposed images of ROS, CHL, and differential interference contrast (DIC). Bars indicate 10 μm in length; (C) The H2O2 contents in the non-transgenic CC125 and transgenic lines (P1-5, P1-7, and P1-10) were measured under control (blank columns) or heat treatment (twilled columns). Cells were collected for chemical measurement immediately after heat treatment. Error bars indicate standard deviations of the mean for five repeats of cell suspensions, and letters on the columns indicate the significant differences based on Duncan’s multiple range test (p < 0.05).

Click here to enlarge figure

Figure 4. ROS and H2O2 accumulation in Chlamydomonas overexpressing PETF under heat treatment. (A) ROS accumulation of cells under control treatment; (B) ROS accumulation of cells under heat treatment. For the heat treatment, non-transgenic CC125 and transgenic P1-10 were incubated at 42 °C for 40 min and stained with H2DCFDA to monitor the accumulation of cellular ROS. ROS: images of red pseudocolor indicate the existence of stained ROS. CHL: images of green pseudocolor indicate the autofluorescence of chlorophyll. MER indicates the superimposed images of ROS, CHL, and differential interference contrast (DIC). Bars indicate 10 μm in length; (C) The H2O2 contents in the non-transgenic CC125 and transgenic lines (P1-5, P1-7, and P1-10) were measured under control (blank columns) or heat treatment (twilled columns). Cells were collected for chemical measurement immediately after heat treatment. Error bars indicate standard deviations of the mean for five repeats of cell suspensions, and letters on the columns indicate the significant differences based on Duncan’s multiple range test (p < 0.05).
Ijms 14 20913f4 1024
Ijms 14 20913f5 1024
Figure 5. Comparison of PETF gene expression level under normal and heat-stress conditions. (A) The relative expression level of PETF transcripts of non-transgenic (CC125) under control (25 °C, blank columns) and heat treatment (42 °C, twilled columns); (B) The PETF gene expression level from non-transgenic (CC125) and PETF-transgenic lines (P1-5, P1-7 and P1-10) were specifically amplified with primers 2201F and PETF-R by qPCR. As shown above the column, the relative expression level of PETF transcripts were compared with those of the Cblp transcripts, and then were normalized according to the value of CC125 under normal growth conditions. Letters on the columns indicate the significant differences based on Duncan’s multiple range test (p < 0.05).

Click here to enlarge figure

Figure 5. Comparison of PETF gene expression level under normal and heat-stress conditions. (A) The relative expression level of PETF transcripts of non-transgenic (CC125) under control (25 °C, blank columns) and heat treatment (42 °C, twilled columns); (B) The PETF gene expression level from non-transgenic (CC125) and PETF-transgenic lines (P1-5, P1-7 and P1-10) were specifically amplified with primers 2201F and PETF-R by qPCR. As shown above the column, the relative expression level of PETF transcripts were compared with those of the Cblp transcripts, and then were normalized according to the value of CC125 under normal growth conditions. Letters on the columns indicate the significant differences based on Duncan’s multiple range test (p < 0.05).
Ijms 14 20913f5 1024
Table Table 1. Chlorophyll contents of transgenic Chlamydomonas overexpressing PETF.

Click here to display table

Table 1. Chlorophyll contents of transgenic Chlamydomonas overexpressing PETF.
Chlorophyll contents (μg/3 × 106 cells)

25 °C42 °C

Chl aChl bTotalChl aChl bTotal
CC12510.6 ± 0.6 a4.5 ± 0.1 a15.1 ± 0.6 a7.1 ± 0.8 a2.7 ± 0.2 a9.8 ± 1.0 a
P1-511.3 ± 0.9 a4.1 ± 0.3 a15.4 ± 1.1 a10.5 ± 0.8 c4.4 ± 0.3 c14.9 ± 1.1 c
P1-711.3 ± 0.7 a4.6 ± 0.3 a15.9 ± 1.0 a9.4 ± 0.1 b3.9 ± 0.1 b13.3 ± 0.2 b
P1-1011.3 ± 0.6 a4.5 ± 0.1 a15.8 ± 0.8 a11.1 ± 0.6 c4.9 ± 0.1 d15.9 ± 0.6 c

Chlorophyll contents in cell cultures were measured immediately after control (25 °C) or heat treatment (42 °C) for 40 min. Values are the mean ± standard deviation for five repeats, and letters indicate the significant differences of each column based on Duncan’s multiple range test (p < 0.05).

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by grants to Teng-Yung Feng from Academia Sinica, Taiwan and grants from the National Science Council of the Republic of China (NSC 99-2313-B-155-001-MY3 to Li-Fen Huang and NSC-101-2313-B-020-024-MY3 to Yi-Hsien Lin).

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Larkindale, J.; Knight, M.R. Protection against heat stress-induced oxidative damage in Arabidopsis involves calcium, abscisic acid, ethylene, and salicylic acid. Plant Physiol 2002, 128, 682–695. [Google Scholar]
  2. Allakhverdiev, S.I.; Kreslavski, V.D.; Klimov, V.V.; Los, D.A.; Carpentier, R.; Mohanty, P. Heat stress: An overview of molecular responses in photosynthesis. Photosynth. Res 2008, 98, 541–550. [Google Scholar]
  3. Foyer, C.H.; Lopez-Delgado, H.; Dat, J.F.; Scott, I.M. Hydrogen peroxide- and glutathione-associated mechanisms of acclimatory stress tolerance and signaling. Physiol. Plant 1997, 100, 241–254. [Google Scholar]
  4. Jakob, B.; Heber, U. Photoproduction and detoxification of hydroxyl radicals in chloroplasts and leaves and relation to photoinactivation of photosystems I and II. Plant Cell Physiol 1996, 37, 629–635. [Google Scholar]
  5. De Gara, L.; Locato, V.; Dipierro, S.; de Pinto, M.C. Redox homeostasis in plants. The challenge of living with endogenous oxygen production. Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol 2010, 173, S13–S19. [Google Scholar]
  6. Lintala, M.; Lehtimaki, N.; Benz, J.P.; Jungfer, A.; Soll, J.; Aro, E.M.; Bolter, B.; Mulo, P. Depletion of leaf-type ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase results in the permanent induction of photoprotective mechanisms in Arabidopsis chloroplasts. Plant J 2012, 70, 809–817. [Google Scholar]
  7. Locato, V.; Gadaleta, C.; de Gara, L.; de Pinto, M.C. Production of reactive species and modulation of antioxidant network in response to heat shock: A critical balance for cell fate. Plant Cell Environ 2008, 31, 1606–1619. [Google Scholar]
  8. Davletova, S.; Rizhsky, L.; Liang, H.; Shengqiang, Z.; Oliver, D.J.; Coutu, J.; Shulaev, V.; Schlauch, K.; Mittler, R. Cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase 1 is a central component of the reactive oxygen gene network of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 2005, 17, 268–281. [Google Scholar]
  9. Hasanuzzaman, M.; Nahar, K.; Alam, M.M.; Roychowdhury, R.; Fujita, M. Physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of heat stress tolerance in plants. Int. J. Mol. Sci 2013, 14, 9643–9684. [Google Scholar]
  10. Lv, W.T.; Lin, B.; Zhang, M.; Hua, X.J. Proline accumulation is inhibitory to Arabidopsis seedlings during heat stress. Plant Physiol 2011, 156, 1921–1933. [Google Scholar]
  11. Sathiyaraj, G.; Lee, O.R.; Parvin, S.; Khorolragchaa, A.; Kim, Y.J.; Yang, D.C. Transcript profiling of antioxidant genes during biotic and abiotic stresses in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. Mol. Biol. Rep 2011, 38, 2761–2769. [Google Scholar]
  12. Vacca, R.A.; Valenti, D.; Bobba, A.; Merafina, R.S.; Passarella, S.; Marra, E. Cytochrome c is released in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner and is degraded via caspase-like proteases in tobacco Bright-Yellow 2 cells en route to heat shock-induced cell death. Plant Physiol 2006, 141, 208–219. [Google Scholar]
  13. Arnon, D.I. The discovery of ferredoxin: The photosynthetic path. Trends Biochem. Sci 1988, 13, 30–33. [Google Scholar]
  14. Schurmann, P.; Buchanan, B.B. The ferredoxin/thioredoxin system of oxygenic photosynthesis. Antioxid. Redox Signal 2008, 10, 1235–1274. [Google Scholar]
  15. Geigenberger, P.; Kolbe, A.; Tiessen, A. Redox regulation of carbon storage and partitioning in response to light and sugars. J. Exp. Bot 2005, 56, 1469–1479. [Google Scholar]
  16. Mulo, P. Chloroplast-targeted ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase (FNR): Structure, function and location. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2011, 1807, 927–934. [Google Scholar]
  17. Winkler, M.; Hemschemeier, A.; Jacobs, J.; Stripp, S.; Happe, T. Multiple ferredoxin isoforms in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii—Their role under stress conditions and biotechnological implications. Eur. J. Cell Biol 2010, 89, 998–1004. [Google Scholar]
  18. Asada, K. The Water-Water cycle in chloroplasts: scavenging of active oxygens and dissipation of excess photons. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol 1999, 50, 601–639. [Google Scholar]
  19. Rizhsky, L.; Liang, H.; Mittler, R. The water-water cycle is essential for chloroplast protection in the absence of stress. J. Biol. Chem 2003, 278, 38921–38925. [Google Scholar]
  20. Noctor, G.; Foyer, C.H. Ascorbate and glutathione: Keeping active oxygen under control. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol 1998, 49, 249–279. [Google Scholar]
  21. Zimmermann, P.; Hirsch-Hoffmann, M.; Hennig, L.; Gruissem, W. Genevestigator. Arabidopsis microarray database and analysis toolbox. Plant Physiol 2004, 136, 2621–2632. [Google Scholar]
  22. Tognetti, V.B.; Palatnik, J.F.; Fillat, M.F.; Melzer, M.; Hajirezaei, M.R.; Valle, E.M.; Carrillo, N. Functional replacement of ferredoxin by a cyanobacterial flavodoxin in tobacco confers broad-range stress tolerance. Plant Cell 2006, 18, 2035–2050. [Google Scholar]
  23. Holtgrefe, S.; Bader, K.P.; Horton, P.; Scheible, R.; von Schaewen, A.; Backhausen, J.E. Decreased content of leaf ferredoxin changes electron distribution and limits photosynthesis in transgenic potato plants. Plant Physiol 2003, 133, 1768–1778. [Google Scholar]
  24. Hanke, G.T.; Hase, T. Variable photosynthetic roles of two leaf-type ferredoxins in Arabidopsis, as revealed by RNA interference. Photochem. Photobiol 2008, 84, 1302–1309. [Google Scholar]
  25. Blanco, N.E.; Ceccoli, R.D.; Segretin, M.E.; Poli, H.O.; Voss, I.; Melzer, M.; Bravo-Almonacid, F.F.; Scheibe, R.; Hajirezaei, M.R.; Carrillo, N. Cyanobacterial flavodoxin complements ferredoxin deficiency in knocked-down transgenic tobacco plants. Plant J 2011, 65, 922–935. [Google Scholar]
  26. Zurbriggen, M.D.; Tognetti, V.B.; Carrillo, N. Stress-inducible flavodoxin from photosynthetic microorganisms. The mystery of flavodoxin loss from the plant genome. IUBMB Life 2007, 59, 355–360. [Google Scholar]
  27. Ceccoli, R.D.; Blanco, N.E.; Medina, M.; Carrillo, N. Stress response of transgenic tobacco plants expressing a cyanobacterial ferredoxin in chloroplasts. Plant Mol. Biol 2011, 76, 535–544. [Google Scholar]
  28. Hema, R.; Senthil-Kumar, M.; Shivakumar, S.; Reddy, P.C.; Udayakumar, M. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a model system for functional validation of abiotic stress responsive genes. Planta 2007, 226, 655–670. [Google Scholar]
  29. Noth, J.; Krawietz, D.; Hemschemeier, A.; Happe, T. Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase is coupled to light-independent hydrogen production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. J. Biol. Chem 2013, 288, 4368–4377. [Google Scholar]
  30. Philipps, G.; Happe, T.; Hemschemeier, A. Nitrogen deprivation results in photosynthetic hydrogen production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Planta 2012, 235, 729–745. [Google Scholar]
  31. Grossman, A.R.; Catalanotti, C.; Yang, W.; Dubini, A.; Magneschi, L.; Subramanian, V.; Posewitz, M.C.; Seibert, M. Multiple facets of anoxic metabolism and hydrogen production in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. New Phytol 2011, 190, 279–288. [Google Scholar]
  32. Merchant, S.S.; Allen, M.D.; Kropat, J.; Moseley, J.L.; Long, J.C.; Tottey, S.; Terauchi, A.M. Between a rock and a hard place: Trace element nutrition in Chlamydomonas. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2006, 1763, 578–594. [Google Scholar]
  33. Terashima, M.; Specht, M.; Hippler, M. The chloroplast proteome: A survey from the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii perspective with a focus on distinctive features. Curr. Genet 2011, 57, 151–168. [Google Scholar]
  34. Terauchi, A.M.; Lu, S.-F.; Zaffagnini, M.; Tappa, S.; Hirasawa, M.; Tripathy, J.N.; Knaff, D.B.; Farmer, P.J.; Lemaire, S.D.; Hase, T.; et al. Pattern of expression and substrate specificity of chloroplast ferredoxins from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. J. Biol. Chem 2009, 284, 25867–25878. [Google Scholar]
  35. Schmitter, J.-M.; Jacquot, J.-P.; de Lamotte-Guéry, F.; Beauvallet, C.; Dutka, S.; Gadal, P.; Decottignies, P. Purification, properties and complete amino acid sequence of the ferredoxin from a green alga Clamydomonas reinhardtii. Eur. J. Biochem 1988, 172, 405–412. [Google Scholar]
  36. Lin, Y.H.; Huang, H.E.; Wu, F.S.; Ger, M.J.; Liao, P.L.; Chen, Y.R.; Tzeng, K.C.; Feng, T.Y. Plant ferredoxin-like protein (PFLP) outside chloroplast in Arabidopsis enhances disease resistance against bacterial pathogens. Plant Sci 2010, 179, 450–458. [Google Scholar]
  37. Khanna-Chopra, R. Leaf senescence and abiotic stresses share reactive oxygen species-mediated chloroplast degradation. Protoplasma 2012, 249, 469–481. [Google Scholar]
  38. Kumar, D.; Yusuf, M.A.; Singh, P.; Sardar, M.; Sarin, N.B. Modulation of antioxidant machinery in alpha-tocopherol-enriched transgenic Brassica juncea plants tolerant to abiotic stress conditions. Protoplasma 2013, 250, 1079–7089. [Google Scholar]
  39. Choe, Y.H.; Kim, Y.S.; Kim, I.S.; Bae, M.J.; Lee, E.J.; Kim, Y.H.; Park, H.M.; Yoon, H.S. Homologous expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase increases grain yield and tolerance of transgenic rice plants to environmental stresses. J. Plant Physiol 2013, 170, 610–618. [Google Scholar]
  40. Kavitha, K.; George, S.; Venkataraman, G.; Parida, A. A salt-inducible chloroplastic monodehydroascorbate reductase from halophyte Avicennia marina confers salt stress tolerance on transgenic plants. Biochimie 2010, 92, 1321–1329. [Google Scholar]
  41. Singh, A.; Grover, A. Genetic engineering for heat tolerance in plants. Physiol. Mol. Biol. Plants 2008, 14, 155–166. [Google Scholar]
  42. Hanke, G.; Mulo, P. Plant type ferredoxins and ferredoxin-dependent metabolism. Plant Cell Environ 2013, 36, 1071–1084. [Google Scholar]
  43. Scheumann, V.; Schoch, S.; Rudiger, W. Chlorophyll a formation in the chlorophyll b reductase reaction requires reduced ferredoxin. J. Biol. Chem 1998, 273, 35102–35108. [Google Scholar]
  44. Reinbothe, C.; Bartsch, S.; Eggink, L.L.; Hoober, J.K.; Brusslan, J.; Andrade-Paz, R.; Monnet, J.; Reinbothe, S. A role for chlorophyllide a oxygenase in the regulated import and stabilization of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2006, 103, 4777–4782. [Google Scholar]
  45. Tanaka, A.; Ito, H.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, N.K.; Yoshida, K.; Okada, K. Chlorophyll a oxygenase (CAO) is involved in chlorophyll b formation from chlorophyll a. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1998, 95, 12719–12723. [Google Scholar]
  46. Rodoni, S.; Muhlecker, W.; Anderl, M.; Krautler, B.; Moser, D.; Thomas, H.; Matile, P.; Hortensteiner, S. Chlorophyll breakdown in senescent chloroplasts (cleavage of pheophorbide a in two enzymic steps). Plant Physiol 1997, 115, 669–676. [Google Scholar]
  47. Op den Camp, R.G.; Przybyla, D.; Ochsenbein, C.; Laloi, C.; Kim, C.; Danon, A.; Wagner, D.; Hideg, E.; Gobel, C.; Feussner, I.; et al. Rapid induction of distinct stress responses after the release of singlet oxygen in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 2003, 15, 2320–2332. [Google Scholar]
  48. Larkindale, J.; Huang, B. Thermotolerance and antioxidant systems in Agrostis stolonifera: Involvement of salicylic acid, abscisic acid, calcium, hydrogen peroxide, and ethylene. J. Plant Physiol 2004, 161, 405–413. [Google Scholar]
  49. Benning, C. Mechanisms of lipid transport involved in organelle biogenesis in plant cells. Ann. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol 2009, 25, 71–91. [Google Scholar]
  50. Ohlrogge, J.; Browse, J. Lipid biosynthesis. Plant Cell 1995, 7, 957–970. [Google Scholar]
  51. Jouhet, J.; Marechal, E.; Block, M.A. Glycerolipid transfer for the building of membranes in plant cells. Prog. Lipid Res 2007, 46, 37–55. [Google Scholar]
  52. Meguro, M.; Ito, H.; Takabayashi, A.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, A. Identification of the 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase of the chlorophyll cycle in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 2011, 23, 3442–3453. [Google Scholar]
  53. Suzuki, N.; Koussevitzky, S.; Mittler, R.; Miller, G. ROS and redox signalling in the response of plants to abiotic stress. Plant Cell Environ 2012, 35, 259–270. [Google Scholar]
  54. Fini, A.; Brunetti, C.; di Ferdinando, M.; Ferrini, F.; Tattini, M. Stress-induced flavonoid biosynthesis and the antioxidant machinery of plants. Plant Signal. Behav 2011, 6, 709–711. [Google Scholar]
  55. Galvez-Valdivieso, G.; Mullineaux, P.M. The role of reactive oxygen species in signalling from chloroplasts to the nucleus. Physiol. Plant 2010, 138, 430–439. [Google Scholar]
  56. Rodriguez, R.E.; Lodeyro, A.; Poli, H.O.; Zurbriggen, M.; Peisker, M.; Palatnik, J.F.; Tognetti, V.B.; Tschiersch, H.; Hajirezaei, M.R.; Valle, E.M.; et al. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing chloroplastic ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductase display normal rates of photosynthesis and increased tolerance to oxidative stress. Plant Physiol 2007, 143, 639–649. [Google Scholar]
  57. Mediavilla, M.G.; di Venanzio, G.A.; Guibert, E.E.; Tiribelli, C. Heterologous ferredoxin reductase and flavodoxin protect Cos-7 cells from oxidative stress. PLoS One 2010, 5, e13501. [Google Scholar]
  58. Mano, J.; Ohno, C.; Domae, Y.; Asada, K. Chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidase is the primary target of methylviologen-induced photooxidative stress in spinach leaves: Its relevance to monodehydroascorbate radical detected with in vivo ESR. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2001, 1504, 275–287. [Google Scholar]
  59. Giacomelli, L.; Masi, A.; Ripoll, D.R.; Lee, M.J.; van Wijk, K.J. Arabidopsis thaliana deficient in two chloroplast ascorbate peroxidases shows accelerated light-induced necrosis when levels of cellular ascorbate are low. Plant Mol. Biol 2007, 65, 627–644. [Google Scholar]
  60. Smirnoff, N. Ascorbate biosynthesis and function in photoprotection. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 2000, 355, 1455–1464. [Google Scholar]
  61. Gorman, D.S.; Levine, R.P. Cytochrome f and plastocyanin: Their sequence in the photosynthetic electron transport chain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1965, 54, 1665–1669. [Google Scholar]
  62. Stern, D.; Witman, G.; Harris, E.H. The Chlamydomonas Sourcebook, 2nd ed.; Academic Press: Waltham, MA, USA, 2008. [Google Scholar]
  63. Berthold, P.; Schmitt, R.; Mages, W. An engineered Streptomyces hygroscopicus aph 7" gene mediates dominant resistance against hygromycin B in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Protist 2002, 153, 401–412. [Google Scholar]
  64. Shimogawara, K.; Fujiwara, S.; Grossman, A.; Usuda, H. High-efficiency transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by electroporation. Genetics 1998, 148, 1821–1828. [Google Scholar]
  65. Strober, W. Trypan blue exclusion test of cell viability. Curr. Protoc. Immunol 2001. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  66. Gillespie, K.M.; Ainsworth, E.A. Measurement of reduced, oxidized and total ascorbate content in plants. Nat. Protoc 2007, 2, 871–874. [Google Scholar]
  67. Voss, I.; Koelmann, M.; Wojtera, J.; Holtgrefe, S.; Kitzmann, C.; Backhausen, J.E.; Scheibe, R. Knockout of major leaf ferredoxin reveals new redox-regulatory adaptations in Arabidopsis thaliana. Physiol. Plant 2008, 133, 584–598. [Google Scholar]
  68. Funes, S.; Franzén, L.-G.; González-Halphen, D. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: The model of choice to study mitochondria from unicellular photosynthetic organisms. Methods Mol. Biol 2007, 372, 137–149. [Google Scholar]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert