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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 979-998; doi:10.3390/ijms14010979
Article

Enhancement of Palmarumycins C12 and C13 Production in Liquid Culture of Endophytic Fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12 after Treatments with Metal Ions

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Received: 12 November 2012; in revised form: 15 December 2012 / Accepted: 25 December 2012 / Published: 7 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Pharmaceuticals by Molecular Farming 2012)
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Abstract: The influences of eight metal ions (i.e., Na+, Ca2+, Ag+, Co2+, Cu2+, Al3+, Zn2+, and Mn4+) on mycelia growth and palmarumycins C12 and C13 production in liquid culture of the endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12 were investigated. Three metal ions, Ca2+, Cu2+ and Al3+ were exhibited as the most effective to enhance mycelia growth and palmarumycin production. When calcium ion (Ca2+) was applied to the medium at 10.0 mmol/L on day 3, copper ion (Cu2+) to the medium at 1.0 mmol/L on day 3, aluminum ion (Al3+) to the medium at 2.0 mmol/L on day 6, the maximal yields of palmarumycins C12 plus C13 were obtained as 137.57 mg/L, 146.28 mg/L and 156.77 mg/L, which were 3.94-fold, 4.19-fold and 4.49-fold in comparison with that (34.91 mg/L) of the control, respectively. Al3+ favored palmarumycin C12 production when its concentration was higher than 4 mmol/L. Ca2+ had an improving effect on mycelia growth of Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12. The combination effects of Ca2+, Cu2+ and Al3+ on palmarumycin C13 production were further studied by employing a statistical method based on the central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). By solving the quadratic regression equation between palmarumycin C13 and three metal ions, the optimal concentrations of Ca2+, Cu2+ and Al3+ in medium for palmarumycin C13 production were determined as 7.58, 1.36 and 2.05 mmol/L, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the predicted maximum palmarumycin C13 yield reached 208.49 mg/L. By optimizing the combination of Ca2+, Cu2+ and Al3+ in medium, palmarumycin C13 yield was increased to 203.85 mg/L, which was 6.00-fold in comparison with that (33.98 mg/L) in the original basal medium. The results indicate that appropriate metal ions (i.e., Ca2+, Cu2+ and Al3+) could enhance palmarumycin production. Application of the metal ions should be an effective strategy for palmarumycin production in liquid culture of the endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12.
Keywords: endophytic fungus; Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12; spirobisnaphthalene; palmarumycin C12; palmarumycin C13; metal ions; calcium ion; copper ion; aluminum ion; center composite design; response surface methodology endophytic fungus; Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12; spirobisnaphthalene; palmarumycin C12; palmarumycin C13; metal ions; calcium ion; copper ion; aluminum ion; center composite design; response surface methodology
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mou, Y.; Luo, H.; Mao, Z.; Shan, T.; Sun, W.; Zhou, K.; Zhou, L. Enhancement of Palmarumycins C12 and C13 Production in Liquid Culture of Endophytic Fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12 after Treatments with Metal Ions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 979-998.

AMA Style

Mou Y, Luo H, Mao Z, Shan T, Sun W, Zhou K, Zhou L. Enhancement of Palmarumycins C12 and C13 Production in Liquid Culture of Endophytic Fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12 after Treatments with Metal Ions. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(1):979-998.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mou, Yan; Luo, Haiyu; Mao, Ziling; Shan, Tijiang; Sun, Weibo; Zhou, Kaiyi; Zhou, Ligang. 2013. "Enhancement of Palmarumycins C12 and C13 Production in Liquid Culture of Endophytic Fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12 after Treatments with Metal Ions." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 1: 979-998.


Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert