Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Effects of Organoboron Antifoulants on Oyster and Sea Urchin Embryo Development
Environment Conservation Division, Environment Bureau, City of Hiroshima, 1-6-34 Naka-ku, Hiroshima 730-8586, Japan
Lab Maritime Environment Management Graduate School of Maritime Science, Kobe University, 5-1-1 Fukaeminami, Higashinada-ku, Kobe 658-0022, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2012; in revised form: 22 November 2012 / Accepted: 8 December 2012 / Published: 24 December 2012
Abstract: Prohibition of Ot (organotin) compounds was introduced in Japan in 1997 and worldwide from September 2008. This meant that the production of paints containing TBT compounds was stopped and alternatives to the available Ot antifoulants had to be developed. It has been claimed that the degradation by-products of these alternative antifoulants were less toxic than those of Ot compounds. Since the introduction of the alternative antifoulants, the accumulation of these compounds has been reported in many countries. However, the toxicity of these compounds was still largely unreported. In this research, the toxicity of the alternative Ot antifoulants TPBP (triphenylborane pyridine) and TPBOA (triphenylborane octadecylamine) and their degradation products on Crassostea gigas and Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus were tested. The results showed that toxic effects in Crassostea gigas was higher for each antifouling biocide than that in Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. Also, while the toxicity of the Organoboron antifoulants and the Ots were the same, the former’s degradation products were much less harmful.
Keywords: bioassay; TPBP; TPBOA; alternative antifoulant; LC10; LC50
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Tsunemasa, N.; Tsuboi, A.; Okamura, H. Effects of Organoboron Antifoulants on Oyster and Sea Urchin Embryo Development. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 421-433.
Tsunemasa N, Tsuboi A, Okamura H. Effects of Organoboron Antifoulants on Oyster and Sea Urchin Embryo Development. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(1):421-433.
Tsunemasa, Noritaka; Tsuboi, Ai; Okamura, Hideo. 2013. "Effects of Organoboron Antifoulants on Oyster and Sea Urchin Embryo Development." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 1: 421-433.