Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 421-433; doi:10.3390/ijms14010421
Article

Effects of Organoboron Antifoulants on Oyster and Sea Urchin Embryo Development

1 Environment Conservation Division, Environment Bureau, City of Hiroshima, 1-6-34 Naka-ku, Hiroshima 730-8586, Japan 2 Lab Maritime Environment Management Graduate School of Maritime Science, Kobe University, 5-1-1 Fukaeminami, Higashinada-ku, Kobe 658-0022, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2012; in revised form: 22 November 2012 / Accepted: 8 December 2012 / Published: 24 December 2012
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Abstract: Prohibition of Ot (organotin) compounds was introduced in Japan in 1997 and worldwide from September 2008. This meant that the production of paints containing TBT compounds was stopped and alternatives to the available Ot antifoulants had to be developed. It has been claimed that the degradation by-products of these alternative antifoulants were less toxic than those of Ot compounds. Since the introduction of the alternative antifoulants, the accumulation of these compounds has been reported in many countries. However, the toxicity of these compounds was still largely unreported. In this research, the toxicity of the alternative Ot antifoulants TPBP (triphenylborane pyridine) and TPBOA (triphenylborane octadecylamine) and their degradation products on Crassostea gigas and Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus were tested. The results showed that toxic effects in Crassostea gigas was higher for each antifouling biocide than that in Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. Also, while the toxicity of the Organoboron antifoulants and the Ots were the same, the former’s degradation products were much less harmful.
Keywords: bioassay; TPBP; TPBOA; alternative antifoulant; LC10; LC50

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tsunemasa, N.; Tsuboi, A.; Okamura, H. Effects of Organoboron Antifoulants on Oyster and Sea Urchin Embryo Development. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 421-433.

AMA Style

Tsunemasa N, Tsuboi A, Okamura H. Effects of Organoboron Antifoulants on Oyster and Sea Urchin Embryo Development. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(1):421-433.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tsunemasa, Noritaka; Tsuboi, Ai; Okamura, Hideo. 2013. "Effects of Organoboron Antifoulants on Oyster and Sea Urchin Embryo Development." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 1: 421-433.

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