Next Article in Journal
An Involvement of Oxidative Stress in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Its Associated Diseases
Previous Article in Journal
TNF-α Gene Knockout in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Line Induces Apoptosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 421-433; doi:10.3390/ijms14010421

Effects of Organoboron Antifoulants on Oyster and Sea Urchin Embryo Development

1,* , 2
1 Environment Conservation Division, Environment Bureau, City of Hiroshima, 1-6-34 Naka-ku, Hiroshima 730-8586, Japan 2 Lab Maritime Environment Management Graduate School of Maritime Science, Kobe University, 5-1-1 Fukaeminami, Higashinada-ku, Kobe 658-0022, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2012 / Revised: 22 November 2012 / Accepted: 8 December 2012 / Published: 24 December 2012
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5961 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures


Prohibition of Ot (organotin) compounds was introduced in Japan in 1997 and worldwide from September 2008. This meant that the production of paints containing TBT compounds was stopped and alternatives to the available Ot antifoulants had to be developed. It has been claimed that the degradation by-products of these alternative antifoulants were less toxic than those of Ot compounds. Since the introduction of the alternative antifoulants, the accumulation of these compounds has been reported in many countries. However, the toxicity of these compounds was still largely unreported. In this research, the toxicity of the alternative Ot antifoulants TPBP (triphenylborane pyridine) and TPBOA (triphenylborane octadecylamine) and their degradation products on Crassostea gigas and Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus were tested. The results showed that toxic effects in Crassostea gigas was higher for each antifouling biocide than that in Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. Also, while the toxicity of the Organoboron antifoulants and the Ots were the same, the former’s degradation products were much less harmful.
Keywords: bioassay; TPBP; TPBOA; alternative antifoulant; LC10; LC50 bioassay; TPBP; TPBOA; alternative antifoulant; LC10; LC50
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Tsunemasa, N.; Tsuboi, A.; Okamura, H. Effects of Organoboron Antifoulants on Oyster and Sea Urchin Embryo Development. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 421-433.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert