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The Role of Photolabile Dermal Nitric Oxide Derivates in Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR)-Induced Cell Death
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Hand Surgery, and Burn Center, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstr. 30, D-52074 Aachen, Germany
Department of Trauma and Hand Surgery, Medical Faculty of the Heinrich-Heine-University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 October 2012; in revised form: 11 December 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 21 December 2012
Abstract: Human skin is exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation comprising UVB (280–315 nm) and UVA (315–400 nm) on a daily basis. Within the last two decades, the molecular and cellular response to UVA/UVB and the possible effects on human health have been investigated extensively. It is generally accepted that the mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of UVB is due to the direct interaction with DNA. On the other hand, by interaction with non-DNA chromophores as endogenous photosensitizers, UVA induces formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which play a pivotal role as mediators of UVA-induced injuries in human skin. This review gives a short overview about relevant findings concerning the molecular mechanisms underlying UVA/UVB-induced cell death. Furthermore, we will highlight the potential role of cutaneous antioxidants and photolabile nitric oxide derivates (NODs) in skin physiology. UVA-induced decomposition of the NODs, like nitrite, leads not only to non-enzymatic formation of nitric oxide (NO), but also to toxic reactive nitrogen species (RNS), like peroxynitrite. Whereas under antioxidative conditions the generation of protective amounts of NO is favored, under oxidative conditions, less injurious reactive nitrogen species are generated, which may enhance UVA-induced cell death.
Keywords: UVA; nitrite; nitric oxide; cell death; lipid peroxidation; apoptosis; necrosis; antioxidants
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Opländer, C.; Suschek, C.V. The Role of Photolabile Dermal Nitric Oxide Derivates in Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR)-Induced Cell Death. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 191-204.
Opländer C, Suschek CV. The Role of Photolabile Dermal Nitric Oxide Derivates in Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR)-Induced Cell Death. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(1):191-204.
Opländer, Christian; Suschek, Christoph V. 2013. "The Role of Photolabile Dermal Nitric Oxide Derivates in Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR)-Induced Cell Death." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 1: 191-204.