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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(9), 11804-11831; doi:10.3390/ijms130911804
Review

Modification by Ubiquitin-Like Proteins: Significance in Apoptosis and Autophagy Pathways

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 and *
Received: 28 June 2012; in revised form: 11 September 2012 / Accepted: 13 September 2012 / Published: 19 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract: Ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls) confer diverse functions on their target proteins. The modified proteins are involved in various biological processes, including DNA replication, signal transduction, cell cycle control, embryogenesis, cytoskeletal regulation, metabolism, stress response, homeostasis and mRNA processing. Modifiers such as SUMO, ATG12, ISG15, FAT10, URM1, and UFM have been shown to modify proteins thus conferring functions related to programmed cell death, autophagy and regulation of the immune system. Putative modifiers such as Domain With No Name (DWNN) have been identified in recent times but not fully characterized. In this review, we focus on cellular processes involving human Ubls and their targets. We review current progress in targeting these modifiers for drug design strategies.
Keywords: ubiquitin-like; autophagy; apoptosis; immune response; DWNN; SNAMA; p53; Ubls; ubiquitin-proteasome; cancer ubiquitin-like; autophagy; apoptosis; immune response; DWNN; SNAMA; p53; Ubls; ubiquitin-proteasome; cancer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cajee, U.-F.; Hull, R.; Ntwasa, M. Modification by Ubiquitin-Like Proteins: Significance in Apoptosis and Autophagy Pathways. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 11804-11831.

AMA Style

Cajee U-F, Hull R, Ntwasa M. Modification by Ubiquitin-Like Proteins: Significance in Apoptosis and Autophagy Pathways. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(9):11804-11831.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cajee, Umar-Faruq; Hull, Rodney; Ntwasa, Monde. 2012. "Modification by Ubiquitin-Like Proteins: Significance in Apoptosis and Autophagy Pathways." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 9: 11804-11831.


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