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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(9), 11584-11592; doi:10.3390/ijms130911584

Possible Alterations in β-Synuclein, the Non-Amyloidogenic Homologue of α-Synuclein, during Progression of Sporadic α-Synucleinopathies

Division of Sensory and Motor Systems, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kamikitazawa Setagaya-ku Tokyo 156-0057, Japan
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Received: 1 August 2012 / Revised: 10 September 2012 / Accepted: 11 September 2012 / Published: 14 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2012)
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Abstract

α-Synucleinopathies are neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by progressive decline of motor and non-motor dysfunctions. α-Synuclein (αS) has been shown to play a causative role in neurodegeneration, but the pathogenic mechanisms are still unclear. Thus, there are no radical therapies that can halt or reverse the disease’s progression. β-Synuclein (βS), the non-amyloidogenic homologue of αS, ameliorates the neurodegeneration phenotype of αS in transgenic (tg) mouse models, as well as in cell free and cell culture systems, which suggests that βS might be a negative regulator of neurodegeneration caused by αS, and that “loss of function” of βS might be involved in progression of α-synucleinopathies. Alternatively, it is possible that “toxic gain of function” of wild type βS occurs during the pathogenesis of sporadic α-synucleinopathies, since tg mice expressing dementia with Lewy bodies-linked P123H βS develop progressive neurodegeneration phenotypes, such as axonal pathology and dementia. In this short review, we emphasize the aspects of “toxic gain of function” of wild type βS during the pathogenesis of sporadic α-synucleinopathies.
Keywords: α-synucleinopathies; α-synuclein; β-synuclein; dementia with Lewy bodies; toxic gain of function α-synucleinopathies; α-synuclein; β-synuclein; dementia with Lewy bodies; toxic gain of function
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fujita, M.; Sekigawa, A.; Sekiyama, K.; Takamatsu, Y.; Hashimoto, M. Possible Alterations in β-Synuclein, the Non-Amyloidogenic Homologue of α-Synuclein, during Progression of Sporadic α-Synucleinopathies. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 11584-11592.

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