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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(9), 10970-10985; doi:10.3390/ijms130910970

Biocompatibility of Genipin and Glutaraldehyde Cross-Linked Chitosan Materials in the Anterior Chamber of the Eye

Received: 4 June 2012 / Revised: 2 August 2012 / Accepted: 27 August 2012 / Published: 4 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Chitosan is a naturally occurring cationic polysaccharide and has attracted much attention in the past decade as an important ophthalmic biomaterial. We recently demonstrated that the genipin (GP) cross-linked chitosan is compatible with human retinal pigment epithelial cells. The present work aims to further investigate the in vivo biocompatibility of GP-treated chitosan (GP-chi group) by adopting the anterior chamber of a rabbit eye model. The glutaraldehyde (GTA) cross-linked samples (GTA-chi group) were used for comparison. The 7-mm-diameter membrane implants made from either non-cross-linked chitosan or chemically modified materials with a cross-linking degree of around 80% were inserted in the ocular anterior chamber for 24 weeks and characterized by slit-lamp and specular microscopic examinations, intraocular pressure measurements, and corneal thickness measurements. The interleukin-6 expressions at mRNA level were also detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results of clinical observations showed that the overall ocular scores in the GTA-chi groups were relatively high. In contrast, the rabbits bearing GP-chi implants in the anterior chamber of the eye exhibited no signs of ocular inflammation. As compared to the non-cross-linked counterparts, the GP-chi samples improved the preservation of corneal endothelial cell density and possessed better anti-inflammatory activities, indicating the benefit action of the GP cross-linker. In summary, the intracameral tissue response to the chemically modified chitosan materials strongly depends on the selection of cross-linking agents.
Keywords: biocompatibility; chemical cross-linking; chitosan; ocular anterior chamber biocompatibility; chemical cross-linking; chitosan; ocular anterior chamber
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Lai, J.-Y. Biocompatibility of Genipin and Glutaraldehyde Cross-Linked Chitosan Materials in the Anterior Chamber of the Eye. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 10970-10985.

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