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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(9), 10880-10898; doi:10.3390/ijms130910880
Article

Synthesis, Structure Optimization and Antifungal Screening of Novel Tetrazole Ring Bearing Acyl-Hydrazones

1,* , 1
 and 2
Received: 17 May 2012; in revised form: 30 July 2012 / Accepted: 11 August 2012 / Published: 30 August 2012
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Abstract: Azoles are generally fungistatic, and resistance to fluconazole is emerging in several fungal pathogens. In an attempt to find novel azole antifungal agents with improved activity, a series of tetrazole ring bearing acylhydrazone derivatives were synthesized and screened for their in vitro antifungal activity. The mechanism of their antifungal activity was assessed by studying their effect on the plasma membrane using flow cytometry and determination of the levels of ergosterol, a fungal-specific sterol. Propidium iodide rapidly penetrated a majority of yeast cells when they were treated with the synthesized compounds at concentrations just above MIC, implying that fungicidal activity resulted from extensive lesions of the plasma membrane. Target compounds also caused a considerable reduction in the amount of ergosterol. The results also showed that the presence and position of different substituents on the phenyl ring of the acylhydrazone pendant seem to play a role on the antifungal activity as well as in deciding the fungistatic and fungicidal nature of the compounds.
Keywords: tetrazole; acylhydrazone; Candida albicans; flow cytometry; ergosterol tetrazole; acylhydrazone; Candida albicans; flow cytometry; ergosterol
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Malik, M.A.; Al-Thabaiti, S.A.; Malik, M.A. Synthesis, Structure Optimization and Antifungal Screening of Novel Tetrazole Ring Bearing Acyl-Hydrazones. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 10880-10898.

AMA Style

Malik MA, Al-Thabaiti SA, Malik MA. Synthesis, Structure Optimization and Antifungal Screening of Novel Tetrazole Ring Bearing Acyl-Hydrazones. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(9):10880-10898.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Malik, Maqsood Ahmad; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmed; Malik, Manzoor A. 2012. "Synthesis, Structure Optimization and Antifungal Screening of Novel Tetrazole Ring Bearing Acyl-Hydrazones." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 9: 10880-10898.



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