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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 8 (August 2012), Pages 9400-10659

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Open AccessArticle Early Amyloidogenic Oligomerization Studied through Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation Spectroscopy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9400-9418; doi:10.3390/ijms13089400
Received: 19 June 2012 / Revised: 13 July 2012 / Accepted: 19 July 2012 / Published: 25 July 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Amyloidogenic protein aggregation is a persistent biomedical problem. Despite active research in disease-related aggregation, the need for multidisciplinary approaches to the problem is evident. Recent advances in single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy are valuable for examining heterogenic biomolecular systems. In this work, we have explored
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Amyloidogenic protein aggregation is a persistent biomedical problem. Despite active research in disease-related aggregation, the need for multidisciplinary approaches to the problem is evident. Recent advances in single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy are valuable for examining heterogenic biomolecular systems. In this work, we have explored the initial stages of amyloidogenic aggregation by employing fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy (FLCS), an advanced modification of conventional fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) that utilizes time-resolved information. FLCS provides size distributions and kinetics for the oligomer growth of the SH3 domain of α-spectrin, whose N47A mutant forms amyloid fibrils at pH 3.2 and 37 °C in the presence of salt. The combination of FCS with additional fluorescence lifetime information provides an exciting approach to focus on the initial aggregation stages, allowing a better understanding of the fibrillization process, by providing multidimensional information, valuable in combination with other conventional methodologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Single Molecule Spectroscopy)
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Open AccessArticle Scutellaria barbata D. Don Inhibits Tumor Angiogenesis via Suppression of Hedgehog Pathway in a Mouse Model of Colorectal Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9419-9430; doi:10.3390/ijms13089419
Received: 6 June 2012 / Revised: 9 July 2012 / Accepted: 11 July 2012 / Published: 25 July 2012
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (2667 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Angiogenesis, which plays a critical role during tumor development, is tightly regulated by the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway, which has been known to malfunction in many types of cancer. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis via modulation of the SHH signaling pathway has become very
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Angiogenesis, which plays a critical role during tumor development, is tightly regulated by the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway, which has been known to malfunction in many types of cancer. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis via modulation of the SHH signaling pathway has become very attractive for cancer chemotherapy. Scutellaria barbata D. Don (SB) has long been used in China to treat various cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Our published data suggested that the ethanol extract of SB (EESB) is able to induce apoptosis of colon cancer cells and inhibit angiogenesis in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model. To further elucidate the precise mechanisms of its anti-tumor activity, in the present study we used a CRC mouse xenograft model to evaluate the effect of EESB on tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. Our current data indicated that EESB reduces tumor size without affecting on the body weight gain in CRC mice. In addition, EESB treatment suppresses the expression of key mediators of the SHH pathway in tumor tissues, which in turn resulted in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, EESB treatment inhibits the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), an important target gene of SHH signaling and functioning as one of the strongest stimulators of angiogenesis. Our findings suggest that inhibition of tumor angiogenesis via suppression of the SHH pathway might be one of the mechanisms by which Scutellaria barbata D. Don can be effective in the treatment of cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Micelle and Bilayer Formation of Amphiphilic Janus Particles in a Slit-Pore
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9431-9446; doi:10.3390/ijms13089431
Received: 5 June 2012 / Revised: 17 July 2012 / Accepted: 18 July 2012 / Published: 26 July 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2203 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We employ molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the self-assembly of amphiphilic Janus particles in a slit-pore consisting of two plane-parallel, soft walls. The Janus particles are modeled as soft spheres with an embedded unit vector pointing from the hydrophobic to the hydrophilic hemisphere.
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We employ molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the self-assembly of amphiphilic Janus particles in a slit-pore consisting of two plane-parallel, soft walls. The Janus particles are modeled as soft spheres with an embedded unit vector pointing from the hydrophobic to the hydrophilic hemisphere. The structure formation is analyzed via cluster size distributions, density and polarization profiles, and in-plane correlation functions. At low temperatures and densities, the dominating structures are spherical micelles, whereas at higher densities we also observe wall-induced bilayer formation. Finally, we compare the MD results with those from a previous density functional study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-Assembled Soft Matter Nanostructures at Interfaces)
Open AccessArticle Pre-Ischemic Treadmill Training for Prevention of Ischemic Brain Injury via Regulation of Glutamate and Its Transporter GLT-1
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9447-9459; doi:10.3390/ijms13089447
Received: 10 May 2012 / Revised: 14 July 2012 / Accepted: 19 July 2012 / Published: 26 July 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pre-ischemic treadmill training exerts cerebral protection in the prevention of cerebral ischemia by alleviating neurotoxicity induced by excessive glutamate release following ischemic stroke. However, the underlying mechanism of this process remains unclear. Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury was observed in a rat model after 2
[...] Read more.
Pre-ischemic treadmill training exerts cerebral protection in the prevention of cerebral ischemia by alleviating neurotoxicity induced by excessive glutamate release following ischemic stroke. However, the underlying mechanism of this process remains unclear. Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury was observed in a rat model after 2 weeks of pre-ischemic treadmill training. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected using the microdialysis sampling method, and the concentration of glutamate was determined every 40 min from the beginning of ischemia to 4 h after reperfusion with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescence detection. At 3, 12, 24, and 48 h after ischemia, the expression of the glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) protein in brain tissues was determined by Western blot respectively. The effect of pre-ischemic treadmill training on glutamate concentration and GLT-1 expression after cerebral ischemia in rats along with changes in neurobehavioral score and cerebral infarct volume after 24 h ischemia yields critical information necessary to understand the protection mechanism exhibited by pre-ischemic treadmill training. The results demonstrated that pre-ischemic treadmill training up-regulates GLT-1 expression, decreases extracellular glutamate concentration, reduces cerebral infarct volume, and improves neurobehavioral score. Pre-ischemic treadmill training is likely to induce neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia by regulating GLT-1 expression, which results in re-uptake of excessive glutamate. Full article
Open AccessArticle Expression Patterns, Activities and Carbohydrate-Metabolizing Regulation of Sucrose Phosphate Synthase, Sucrose Synthase and Neutral Invertase in Pineapple Fruit during Development and Ripening
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9460-9477; doi:10.3390/ijms13089460
Received: 12 June 2012 / Revised: 14 July 2012 / Accepted: 19 July 2012 / Published: 26 July 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (938 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Differences in carbohydrate contents and metabolizing-enzyme activities were monitored in apical, medial, basal and core sections of pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris) during fruit development and ripening. Fructose and glucose of various sections in nearly equal amounts were the predominant
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Differences in carbohydrate contents and metabolizing-enzyme activities were monitored in apical, medial, basal and core sections of pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris) during fruit development and ripening. Fructose and glucose of various sections in nearly equal amounts were the predominant sugars in the fruitlets, and had obvious differences until the fruit matured. The large rise of sucrose/hexose was accompanied by dramatic changes in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) activities. By contrast, neutral invertase (NI) activity may provide a mechanism to increase fruit sink strength by increasing hexose concentrations. Furthermore, two cDNAs of Ac-sps (accession no. GQ996582) and Ac-ni (accession no. GQ996581) were first isolated from pineapple fruits utilizing conserved amino-acid sequences. Homology alignment reveals that the amino acid sequences contain some conserved function domains. Transcription expression analysis of Ac-sps, Ac-susy and Ac-ni also indicated distinct patterns related to sugar accumulation and composition of pineapple fruits. It suggests that differential expressions of multiple gene families are necessary for sugar metabolism in various parts and developmental stages of pineapple fruit. A cycle of sucrose breakdown in the cytosol of sink tissues could be mediated through both Ac-SuSy and Ac-NI, and Ac-NI could be involved in regulating crucial steps by generating sugar signals to the cells in a temporally and spatially restricted fashion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Effects of High Glucose on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Synthesis and Secretion in Aortic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells from Obese and Lean Zucker Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9478-9488; doi:10.3390/ijms13089478
Received: 28 April 2012 / Revised: 22 June 2012 / Accepted: 20 July 2012 / Published: 26 July 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (249 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency, type 2 by both insulin deficiency and insulin resistance: in both conditions, hyperglycaemia is accompanied by an increased cardiovascular risk, due to increased atherosclerotic plaque formation/instabilization and impaired collateral vessel formation. An important factor in
[...] Read more.
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency, type 2 by both insulin deficiency and insulin resistance: in both conditions, hyperglycaemia is accompanied by an increased cardiovascular risk, due to increased atherosclerotic plaque formation/instabilization and impaired collateral vessel formation. An important factor in these phenomena is the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), a molecule produced also by Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMC). We aimed at evaluating the role of high glucose on VEGF-A164 synthesis and secretion in VSMC from lean insulin-sensitive and obese insulin-resistant Zucker rats (LZR and OZR). In cultured aortic VSMC from LZR and OZR incubated for 24 h with D-glucose (5.5, 15 and 25 mM) or with the osmotic controls L-glucose and mannitol, we measured VEGF-A164 synthesis (western, blotting) and secretion (western blotting and ELISA). We observed that: (i) D-glucose dose-dependently increases VEGF-A164 synthesis and secretion in VSMC from LZR and OZR (n = 6, ANOVA p = 0.002–0.0001); (ii) all the effects of 15 and 25 mM D-glucose are attenuated in VSMC from OZR vs. LZR (p = 0.0001); (iii) L-glucose and mannitol reproduce the VEGF-A164 modulation induced by D-glucose in VSMC from both LZR and OZR. Thus, glucose increases via an osmotic mechanism VEGF synthesis and secretion in VSMC, an effect attenuated in the presence of insulin resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Organ-Specific Toxicity)
Open AccessArticle Detection of Differential Levels of Proteins in the Urine of Patients with Endometrial Cancer: Analysis Using Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and O-Glycan Binding Lectin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9489-9501; doi:10.3390/ijms13089489
Received: 7 May 2012 / Revised: 26 June 2012 / Accepted: 2 July 2012 / Published: 27 July 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cancers can cause some proteins to be aberrantly excreted or released in the urine, which can be used as biomarkers. To screen for potential biomarkers for endometrial cancer (ECa), the urinary proteins from patients who were newly diagnosed with early stage ECa and
[...] Read more.
Cancers can cause some proteins to be aberrantly excreted or released in the urine, which can be used as biomarkers. To screen for potential biomarkers for endometrial cancer (ECa), the urinary proteins from patients who were newly diagnosed with early stage ECa and untreated controls were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and followed by image analysis. The altered levels of zinc alpha-2 glycoprotein, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, and CD59 were detected in the patients compared to the controls. In addition, the urine of the ECa patients was also found to contain relatively lower levels of a fragment of nebulin when the 2-DE separated urinary proteins were probed using champedak galactose binding (CGB) lectin. The different levels of the nebulin fragment were further validated by subjecting the urinary protein samples to CGB lectin affinity chromatography and analysis of the bound fractions by LC-MS/MS. Our data is suggestive of the potential use of the differentially expressed urinary proteins as biomarkers for ECa although this requires further extensive validation on clinically representative populations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Thermal Studies of Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) Complexes of Some N-Alkyl-N-Phenyl-Dithiocarbamates
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9502-9513; doi:10.3390/ijms13089502
Received: 30 March 2012 / Revised: 2 July 2012 / Accepted: 11 July 2012 / Published: 27 July 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1885 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The thermal decomposition of Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes of N-ethyl-N-phenyl and N-butyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamates have been studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The products of the decomposition, at two different temperatures, were
[...] Read more.
The thermal decomposition of Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes of N-ethyl-N-phenyl and N-butyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamates have been studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The products of the decomposition, at two different temperatures, were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results show that while the zinc and cadmium complexes undergo decomposition to form metal sulphides, and further undergo oxidation forming metal oxides as final products, the mercury complexes gave unstable volatiles as the final product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences and Nanotechnology)
Open AccessArticle Correlation between Protein Sequence Similarity and Crystallization Reagents in the Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9514-9526; doi:10.3390/ijms13089514
Received: 1 June 2012 / Revised: 9 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 27 July 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (469 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The protein structural entries grew far slower than the sequence entries. This is partly due to the bottleneck in obtaining diffraction quality protein crystals for structural determination using X-ray crystallography. The first step to achieve protein crystallization is to find out suitable chemical
[...] Read more.
The protein structural entries grew far slower than the sequence entries. This is partly due to the bottleneck in obtaining diffraction quality protein crystals for structural determination using X-ray crystallography. The first step to achieve protein crystallization is to find out suitable chemical reagents. However, it is not an easy task. Exhausting trial and error tests of numerous combinations of different reagents mixed with the protein solution are usually necessary to screen out the pursuing crystallization conditions. Therefore, any attempts to help find suitable reagents for protein crystallization are helpful. In this paper, an analysis of the relationship between the protein sequence similarity and the crystallization reagents according to the information from the existing databases is presented. We extracted information of reagents and sequences from the Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (BMCD) and the Protein Data Bank (PDB) database, classified the proteins into different clusters according to the sequence similarity, and statistically analyzed the relationship between the sequence similarity and the crystallization reagents. The results showed that there is a pronounced positive correlation between them. Therefore, according to the correlation, prediction of feasible chemical reagents that are suitable to be used in crystallization screens for a specific protein is possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Crystallography in Molecular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Palmitate Ester Self-Assembly with Diclofenac
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9572-9583; doi:10.3390/ijms13089572
Received: 13 June 2012 / Revised: 10 July 2012 / Accepted: 17 July 2012 / Published: 31 July 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (368 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Palm oil-based esters (POEs) are unsaturated and non-ionic esters with a great potential to act as chemical penetration enhancers and drug carriers for transdermal drug nano-delivery. A ratio of palmitate ester and nonionic Tween80 with and without diclofenac acid was chosen from an
[...] Read more.
Palm oil-based esters (POEs) are unsaturated and non-ionic esters with a great potential to act as chemical penetration enhancers and drug carriers for transdermal drug nano-delivery. A ratio of palmitate ester and nonionic Tween80 with and without diclofenac acid was chosen from an experimentally determined phase diagram. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed for selected compositions over a period of 15 ns. Both micelles showed a prolate-like shape, while adding the drug produced a more compact micellar structure. Our results proposed that the drug could behave as a co-surfactant in our simulated model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Comparative Studies on the Induction of Trichoderma harzianum Mutanase by α-(1→3)-Glucan-Rich Fruiting Bodies and Mycelia of Laetiporus sulphureus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9584-9598; doi:10.3390/ijms13089584
Received: 10 July 2012 / Revised: 24 July 2012 / Accepted: 24 July 2012 / Published: 31 July 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (325 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mutanase (α-(1→3)-glucanase) is a little-known inductive enzyme that is potentially useful in dentistry. Here, it was shown that the cell wall preparation (CWP) obtained from the fruiting body or vegetative mycelium of polypore fungus Laetiporus sulphureus is rich in α-(1→3)-glucan and can be
[...] Read more.
Mutanase (α-(1→3)-glucanase) is a little-known inductive enzyme that is potentially useful in dentistry. Here, it was shown that the cell wall preparation (CWP) obtained from the fruiting body or vegetative mycelium of polypore fungus Laetiporus sulphureus is rich in α-(1→3)-glucan and can be successfully used for mutanase induction in Trichoderma harzianum. The content of this biopolymer in the CWP depended on the age of fruiting bodies and increased along with their maturation. In the case of CWP prepared from vegetative mycelia, the amount of α-(1→3)-glucan depended on the mycelium age and also on the kind of medium used for its cultivation. All CWPs prepared from the individually harvested fruiting body specimens induced high mutanase activity (0.53–0.82 U/mL) in T. harzianum after 3 days of cultivation. As for the CWPs obtained from the hyphal mycelia of L. sulpureus, the maximal enzyme productivity (0.34 U/mL after 3 days of incubation) was recorded for CWP prepared from the 3 week-old mycelium cultivated in Sabouraud medium. Statistically, a high positive correlation was found between the total percentage content of α-(1→3)-glucan in the CWP and the mutanase activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Optimization and Immobilization)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Sex-Specific Gene Expression in Archived Dried Blood Spots (DBS)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9599-9608; doi:10.3390/ijms13089599
Received: 28 April 2012 / Revised: 25 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 2 August 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (463 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Screening newborns for treatable serious conditions is mandated in all US states and many other countries. After screening, Guthrie cards with residual blood (whole spots or portions of spots) are typically stored at ambient temperature in many facilities. The potential of archived dried
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Screening newborns for treatable serious conditions is mandated in all US states and many other countries. After screening, Guthrie cards with residual blood (whole spots or portions of spots) are typically stored at ambient temperature in many facilities. The potential of archived dried blood spots (DBS) for at-birth molecular studies in epidemiological and clinical research is substantial. However, it is also challenging as analytes from DBS may be degraded due to preparation and storage conditions. We previously reported an improved assay for obtaining global RNA gene expression from blood spots. Here, we evaluated sex-specific gene expression and its preservation in DBS using oligonucleotide microarray technology. We found X inactivation-specific transcript (XIST), lysine-specific demethylase 5D (KDM5D) (also known as selected cDNA on Y, homolog of mouse (SMCY)), uncharacterized LOC729444 (LOC729444), and testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 21 (TTTY21) to be differentially-expressed by sex of the newborn. Our finding that trait-specific RNA gene expression is preserved in unfrozen DBS, demonstrates the technical feasibility of performing molecular genetic profiling using such samples. With millions of DBS potentially available for research, we see new opportunities in using newborn molecular gene expression to better understand molecular pathogenesis of perinatal diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Isolation and Identification of Fourteen Microsatellite Markers in Clivia miniata and Clivia nobilis (Amaryllidaceae)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9609-9614; doi:10.3390/ijms13089609
Received: 2 May 2012 / Revised: 18 July 2012 / Accepted: 25 July 2012 / Published: 2 August 2012
PDF Full-text (124 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Clivia is a genus of great horticultural importance and has been widely cultivated as ornamental plants in all over the world. In order to assess the phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of the wild Clivia species and cultivars, we isolated AC-enriched repeats using
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Clivia is a genus of great horticultural importance and has been widely cultivated as ornamental plants in all over the world. In order to assess the phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of the wild Clivia species and cultivars, we isolated AC-enriched repeats using FIASCO from a single clone each of C. miniata Regel. and Clivia nobilis Lindl. Of the fourteen repeats, 10 were polymorphic and 4 were monomorphic. The polymorphic marker loci were characterized using 61 Clivia accessions. The number of alleles ranged from two to six, observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.04 to 1.00 and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.04 to 0.83. These microsatellite marker loci provide tools for future studies of Clivia species and cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Metal-Sulfate Induced Generation of ROS in Human Brain Cells: Detection Using an Isomeric Mixture of 5- and 6-Carboxy-2′,7′-Dichlorofluorescein Diacetate (Carboxy-DCFDA) as a Cell Permeant Tracer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9615-9626; doi:10.3390/ijms13089615
Received: 21 June 2012 / Revised: 20 July 2012 / Accepted: 24 July 2012 / Published: 2 August 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (333 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Evolution of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated during the patho-physiological stress of nervous tissue, has been implicated in the etiology of several progressive human neurological disorders including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and amylotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this brief communication we used mixed isomers
[...] Read more.
Evolution of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated during the patho-physiological stress of nervous tissue, has been implicated in the etiology of several progressive human neurological disorders including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and amylotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this brief communication we used mixed isomers of 5-(and-6)-carboxy-2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (carboxy-DCFDA; C25H14Cl2O9; MW 529.3), a novel fluorescent indicator, to assess ROS generation within human neuronal-glial (HNG) cells in primary co-culture. We introduced pathological stress using the sulfates of 12 environmentally-, industrially- and agriculturally-relevant divalent and trivalent metals including Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ga, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn and Zn. In this experimental test system, of all the metal sulfates analyzed, aluminum sulfate showed by far the greatest ability to induce intracellular ROS. These studies indicate the utility of using isomeric mixtures of carboxy-H2DCFDA diacetates as novel and highly sensitive, long-lasting, cell-permeant, fluorescein-based tracers for quantifying ROS generation in intact, metabolizing human brain cells, and in analyzing the potential epigenetic contribution of different metal sulfates to ROS-generation and ROS-mediated neurological dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine)
Open AccessArticle Arsenic Trioxide Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis through Inactivation of Notch Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9627-9641; doi:10.3390/ijms13089627
Received: 30 May 2012 / Revised: 15 July 2012 / Accepted: 25 July 2012 / Published: 2 August 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (920 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Arsenic trioxide has been reported to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptotic cell death in many human cancer cells including breast cancer. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor activity of arsenic trioxide are still largely unknown. In the present study, we
[...] Read more.
Arsenic trioxide has been reported to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptotic cell death in many human cancer cells including breast cancer. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor activity of arsenic trioxide are still largely unknown. In the present study, we assessed the effects of arsenic trioxide on cell viability and apoptosis in breast cancer cells. For mechanistic studies, we used multiple cellular and molecular approaches such as MTT assay, apoptosis ELISA assay, gene transfection, RT-PCR, Western blotting, and invasion assays. For the first time, we found a significant reduction in cell viability in arsenic trioxide-treated cells in a dose-dependent manner, which was consistent with induction of apoptosis and also associated with down-regulation of Notch-1 and its target genes. Taken together, our findings provide evidence showing that the down-regulation of Notch-1 by arsenic trioxide could be an effective approach, to cause down-regulation of Bcl-2, and NF-κB, resulting in the inhibition of cell growth and invasion as well as induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that the anti-tumor activity of arsenic trioxide is in part mediated through a novel mechanism involving inactivation of Notch-1 and its target genes. We also suggest that arsenic trioxide could be further developed as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Programmed Cell Death and Apoptosis)
Open AccessCommunication Neuroprotective Effects of Triterpene Glycosides from Glycine max against Glutamate Induced Toxicity in Primary Cultured Rat Cortical Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9642-9648; doi:10.3390/ijms13089642
Received: 7 June 2012 / Revised: 16 July 2012 / Accepted: 23 July 2012 / Published: 2 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To examine the neuroprotective effects of Glycine max, we tested its protection against the glutamate-induced toxicity in primary cortical cultured neurons. In order to clarify the neuroprotective mechanism(s) of this observed effect, isolation was performed to seek and identify active fractions and
[...] Read more.
To examine the neuroprotective effects of Glycine max, we tested its protection against the glutamate-induced toxicity in primary cortical cultured neurons. In order to clarify the neuroprotective mechanism(s) of this observed effect, isolation was performed to seek and identify active fractions and components. From such fractionation, two triterpene glycosides, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1-2)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl]olean-12-en-3β,22β,24-triol (1) and 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl(1-2)-β-D-galactopyranosyl(1-2)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl]olean-12-en-3β,22β,24-triol (2) were isolated with the methanol extracts with of air-dried Glycine max. Among these compounds, compound 2 exhibited significant neuroprotective activities against glutamate-induced toxicity, exhibiting cell viability of about 50% at concentrations ranging from 0.1 μM to 10 μM. Therefore, the neuroprotective effect of Glycine max might be due to the inhibition of glutamate-induced toxicity by triterpene glycosides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Pharmaceuticals by Molecular Farming 2012)
Open AccessArticle Enzymatic Properties and Mutational Studies of Chalcone Synthase from Physcomitrella patens
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9673-9691; doi:10.3390/ijms13089673
Received: 2 May 2012 / Revised: 6 July 2012 / Accepted: 9 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (722 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
PpCHS is a member of the type III polyketide synthase family and catalyses the synthesis of the flavonoid precursor naringenin chalcone from p-coumaroyl-CoA. Recent research reports the production of pyrone derivatives using either hexanoyl-CoA or butyryl-CoA as starter molecule. The Cys-His-Asn
[...] Read more.
PpCHS is a member of the type III polyketide synthase family and catalyses the synthesis of the flavonoid precursor naringenin chalcone from p-coumaroyl-CoA. Recent research reports the production of pyrone derivatives using either hexanoyl-CoA or butyryl-CoA as starter molecule. The Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad found in other plant chalcone synthase predicted polypeptides is conserved in PpCHS. Site directed mutagenesis involving these amino acids residing in the active-site cavity revealed that the cavity volume of the active-site plays a significant role in the selection of starter molecules as well as product formation. Substitutions of Cys 170 with Arg and Ser amino acids decreased the ability of the PpCHS to utilize hexanoyl-CoA as a starter molecule, which directly effected the production of pyrone derivatives (products). These substitutions are believed to have a restricted number of elongations of the growing polypeptide chain due to the smaller cavity volume of the mutant’s active site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Optimization and Immobilization)
Open AccessArticle Neuroprotective Effects of Germinated Brown Rice against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Cell Death in Human SH-SY5Y Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9692-9708; doi:10.3390/ijms13089692
Received: 4 June 2012 / Revised: 13 July 2012 / Accepted: 19 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (539 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of germinated brown rice (GBR), brown rice (BR) and commercially available γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) against cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been investigated. Results show that GBR
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The neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of germinated brown rice (GBR), brown rice (BR) and commercially available γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) against cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been investigated. Results show that GBR suppressed H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, GBR reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and prevented phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation in SH-SY5Y cells, key features of apoptosis, and subsequent cell death. GBR exhibited better neuroprotective and antioxidative activities as compared to BR and GABA. These results indicate that GBR possesses high antioxidative activities and suppressed cell death in SH-SY5Y cells by blocking the cell cycle re-entry and apoptotic mechanisms. Therefore, GBR could be developed as a value added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors in Combination with Taxol on Expression of Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 in a Xenograft Model of Ovarian Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9741-9753; doi:10.3390/ijms13089741
Received: 18 June 2012 / Revised: 22 July 2012 / Accepted: 27 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors in combination with taxol on the expression of cyclin D1 and Ki-67 in human ovarian SKOV-3 carcinoma cells xenograft-bearing mice. The animals were treated with 100 mg/kg celecoxib (a COX-2
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The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors in combination with taxol on the expression of cyclin D1 and Ki-67 in human ovarian SKOV-3 carcinoma cells xenograft-bearing mice. The animals were treated with 100 mg/kg celecoxib (a COX-2 selective inhibitor) alone, 3 mg/kg SC-560 (a COX-1 selective inhibitor) alone by gavage twice a day, 20 mg/kg taxol alone by intraperitoneally (i.p.) once a week, or celecoxib/taxol, SC-560/celecoxib, SC-560/taxol or SC-560/celecoxib/taxol, for three weeks. To test the mechanism of the combination treatment, the index of cell proliferation and expression of cyclin D1 in tumor tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry. The mean tumor volume in the treated groups was significantly lower than control (p < 0.05), and in the three-drug combination group, tumor volume was reduced by 58.27% (p < 0.01); downregulated cell proliferation and cyclin D1 expression were statistically significant compared with those of the control group (both p < 0.01). This study suggests that the effects of COX selective inhibitors on the growth of tumors and decreased cell proliferation in a SKOV-3 cells mouse xenograft model were similar to taxol. The three-drug combination showing a better decreasing tendency in growth-inhibitory effect during the experiment may have been caused by suppressing cyclin D1 expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Molecules in Ovarian Cancer 2012)
Open AccessArticle Constituents from Vigna vexillata and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9754-9768; doi:10.3390/ijms13089754
Received: 16 July 2012 / Revised: 29 July 2012 / Accepted: 31 July 2012 / Published: 6 August 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The seeds of Vigna genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of V. vexillata demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to
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The seeds of Vigna genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of V. vexillata demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of V. vexillata. One new sterol (1) and two new isoflavones (2,3) were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23), abscisic acid (25), and quercetin (40) displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Structural and Catalytic Differences between Two FADH2-Dependent Monooxygenases: 2,4,5-TCP 4-Monooxygenase (TftD) from Burkholderia cepacia AC1100 and 2,4,6-TCP 4-Monooxygenase (TcpA) from Cupriavidus necator JMP134
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9769-9784; doi:10.3390/ijms13089769
Received: 18 July 2012 / Revised: 27 July 2012 / Accepted: 31 July 2012 / Published: 6 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2737 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
2,4,5-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TftD) and 2,4,6-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TcpA) have been discovered in the biodegradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). TcpA and TftD belong to the reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2)-dependent monooxygenases and both use 2,4,6-TCP as a substrate; however, the two
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2,4,5-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TftD) and 2,4,6-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TcpA) have been discovered in the biodegradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). TcpA and TftD belong to the reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2)-dependent monooxygenases and both use 2,4,6-TCP as a substrate; however, the two enzymes produce different end products. TftD catalyzes a typical monooxygenase reaction, while TcpA catalyzes a typical monooxygenase reaction followed by a hydrolytic dechlorination. We have previously reported the 3D structure of TftD and confirmed the catalytic residue, His289. Here we have determined the crystal structure of TcpA and investigated the apparent differences in specificity and catalysis between these two closely related monooxygenases through structural comparison. Our computational docking results suggest that Ala293 in TcpA (Ile292 in TftD) is possibly responsible for the differences in substrate specificity between the two monooxygenases. We have also identified that Arg101 in TcpA could provide inductive effects/charge stabilization during hydrolytic dechlorination. The collective information provides a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanism and the parameters for substrate specificity. The information may provide guidance for designing bioremediation strategies for polychlorophenols, a major group of environmental pollutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavins)
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Open AccessArticle The Metalloporphyrin Antioxidant, MnTE-2-PyP, Inhibits Th2 Cell Immune Responses in an Asthma Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9785-9797; doi:10.3390/ijms13089785
Received: 14 June 2012 / Revised: 13 July 2012 / Accepted: 26 July 2012 / Published: 6 August 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (843 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MnTE-2-PyP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, inhibited OVA-induced airway inflammation in mice suggesting an effect on Th2 responsiveness. Thus, we hypothesized that MnTE-2-PyP may alter dendritic cell-Th2 interactions. Bone marrow derived dendritic cells (DC) and OVA323-339-specific Th2 cells were cultured separately in
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MnTE-2-PyP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, inhibited OVA-induced airway inflammation in mice suggesting an effect on Th2 responsiveness. Thus, we hypothesized that MnTE-2-PyP may alter dendritic cell-Th2 interactions. Bone marrow derived dendritic cells (DC) and OVA323-339-specific Th2 cells were cultured separately in the presence or absence of MnTE-2-PyP for 3 days prior to the co-culturing of the two cell types in the presence of an OVA323-339 peptide and in some cases stimulated with CD3/CD28. MnTE-2-PyP-pretreated DC inhibited IL-4, IL-5 and IFNγ production and inhibited Th2 cell proliferation in the DC-Th2 co-culturing system in the presence of the OVA323-339 peptide. Similar results were obtained using the CD3/CD28 cell-activation system; the addition of MnTE-2-PyP inhibited Th2 cell proliferation. MnTE-2-PyP suppressed CD25 expression on OVA-specific Th2 cells, which implied that MnTE-2-PyP can inhibit the activation of Th2 cells. MnTE-2-PyP also down-regulated co-stimulatory molecules: CD40, CD80 and CD86 on immature DC. Our studies suggest that the major mechanism by which MnTE-2-PyP inhibits airway inflammation is by acting on the DC and suppressing Th2 cell proliferation and activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle High Throughput Mining and Characterization of Microsatellites from Common Carp Genome
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9798-9807; doi:10.3390/ijms13089798
Received: 6 June 2012 / Revised: 8 July 2012 / Accepted: 24 July 2012 / Published: 6 August 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In order to supply sufficient microsatellite loci for high-density linkage mapping, whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequences of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were assembled and surveyed for microsatellite identification. A total of 79,014 microsatellites were collected which were harbored in 68,827
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In order to supply sufficient microsatellite loci for high-density linkage mapping, whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequences of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were assembled and surveyed for microsatellite identification. A total of 79,014 microsatellites were collected which were harbored in 68,827 distinct contig sequences. These microsatellites were characterized in the common carp genome. Information of all microsatellites, including previously published BAC-based microsatellites, was then stored in a MySQL database, and a web-based database interface (http://genomics.cafs.ac.cn/ssrdb) was built for public access and download. A total of 3,110 microsatellites, including 1,845 from WGS and 1,265 from BAC end sequences (BES), were tested and genotyped on a mapping family with 192 individuals. A total of 963 microsatellites markers were validated with polymorphism in the mapping family. They will soon be used for high-density linkage mapping with a vast number of polymorphic SNP markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Less Expression of Prohibitin Is Associated with Increased Paired Box 2 (PAX2) in Renal Interstitial Fibrosis Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9808-9825; doi:10.3390/ijms13089808
Received: 30 May 2012 / Revised: 3 July 2012 / Accepted: 19 July 2012 / Published: 6 August 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (985 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prohibitin (PHB) and paired box 2 (PAX2) are associated with the development of renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF). This study was performed to investigate whether or not the PHB could regulate the PAX2 gene expression in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rats. Eighty Wistar
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Prohibitin (PHB) and paired box 2 (PAX2) are associated with the development of renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF). This study was performed to investigate whether or not the PHB could regulate the PAX2 gene expression in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rats. Eighty Wistar male rats were randomly divided into two groups: sham operation group (SHO) and model group subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (GU), n = 40, respectively. The model was established by left ureteral ligation. Renal tissues were collected at 14-day and 28-day after surgery. RIF index, protein expression of PHB, PAX2, transforming growth factor-βl (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen-IV (Col-IV), fibronectin (FN) or cleaved Caspase-3, and cell apoptosis index in renal interstitium, and mRNA expressions of PHB, PAX2 and TGF-β1 in renal tissue were detected. When compared with those in SHO group, expression of PHB (mRNA and protein) was significantly reduced, and expressions of PAX2 and TGF-β1 (protein and mRNA) were markedly increased in the GU group (each p < 0.01). Protein expressions of α-SMA, Col-IV, FN and cleaved Caspase-3, and RIF index or cell apoptosis index in the GU group were markedly increased when compared with those in the SHO group (each p < 0.01). The protein expression of PHB was negatively correlated with protein expression of PAX2, TGF-β1, α-SMA, Col-IV, FN or cleaved Caspase-3, and RIF index or cell apoptosis index (all p < 0.01). In conclusion, less expression of PHB is associated with increased PAX2 gene expression and RIF index in UUO rats, suggesting that increasing the PHB expression is a potential therapeutic target for prevention of RIF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Conformational Solvation Studies of LIGNOLs with Molecular Dynamics and Conductor-Like Screening Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9845-9863; doi:10.3390/ijms13089845
Received: 18 June 2012 / Revised: 16 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 7 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4926 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed on sterically hindered -conidendrin-based chiral 1,4-diols (LIGNOLs) from the naturally occurring lignan hydroxymatairesinol (HMR) using the GROMACS software. The aim of this study was to explore the conformational behaviour of the LIGNOLs in aqueous solution adopting the
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Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed on sterically hindered -conidendrin-based chiral 1,4-diols (LIGNOLs) from the naturally occurring lignan hydroxymatairesinol (HMR) using the GROMACS software. The aim of this study was to explore the conformational behaviour of the LIGNOLs in aqueous solution adopting the TIP4P model. The topologies of the LIGNOLs were constructed manually and they were modeled with the OPLS-AA force field implemented in GROMACS. The four most relevant torsional angles in the LIGNOLs were properly analyzed during the simulations. The determining property for the conformation preferred in aqueous solution was found to be the lowest energy in gas phase. The solvation effects on the LIGNOLs were also studied by quantum chemical calculations applying the COnductor-like Screening MOdel (COSMO). The hydration studies of the MD simulations showed that several of these LIGNOLs, produced from a renewable source, have a great potential of acting as chiral catalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Acute Effect of Ghrelin on Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in the Rat Spinal Cord
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9864-9876; doi:10.3390/ijms13089864
Received: 18 May 2012 / Revised: 17 July 2012 / Accepted: 19 July 2012 / Published: 8 August 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (925 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ghrelin, a 28-amino acid peptide, is mainly secreted by the stomach. Ghrelin has been shown to have neuroprotective effects. However, whether ghrelin protects the spinal cord from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is unknown. To investigate this, 60 rats were randomly divided into three different
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Ghrelin, a 28-amino acid peptide, is mainly secreted by the stomach. Ghrelin has been shown to have neuroprotective effects. However, whether ghrelin protects the spinal cord from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is unknown. To investigate this, 60 rats were randomly divided into three different groups: the sham group (n = 20), the vehicle group (n = 20), and the Ghrelin group (100 µg/kg, n = 20). Rats were sacrificed 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after ischemia. After the evaluation of neurologic function (48 h), the spinal cords were immediately removed for the determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity (12–72 h). Apoptosis was quantitatively measured using the terminal transferase UTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method (24 h). The expression of bax and bcl-2 were evaluated by Western blot analysis (1 h), and GHSR-1a mRNA expression was detected using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (24 h). The neurological motor function was evaluated by ‘Tarlov’s score’. The neurologic outcomes in the ghrelin-group were significantly better than those in the vehicle group (p < 0.05). Serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) levels were assessed in the peripheral venous blood. Ghrelin decreased the serum TNF-α levels and ameliorated the down regulation of spinal cord MPO activity. The expression of ghrelin receptors (GHSR-1a) in the rat spinal cord was decreased by I/R injury and increased by ghrelin. Ghrelin reduced the TUNEL-positive rate. Greater bcl-2, HSP27, HSP70, and attenuated bax expression were observed in the ghrelin-treated rats. Our results suggest that ghrelin administration may inhibit spinal I/R injury. Moreover, the improvement of neurologic function in rats was increased after the ghrelin treatment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Wogonin Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Cell Apoptosis in Human Glioma Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9877-9892; doi:10.3390/ijms13089877
Received: 1 June 2012 / Revised: 6 July 2012 / Accepted: 26 July 2012 / Published: 8 August 2012
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (619 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Glioma is the most common primary adult brain tumor with poor prognosis because of the ease of spreading tumor cells to other regions of the brain. Cell apoptosis is frequently targeted for developing anti-cancer drugs. In the present study, we have assessed wogonin,
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Glioma is the most common primary adult brain tumor with poor prognosis because of the ease of spreading tumor cells to other regions of the brain. Cell apoptosis is frequently targeted for developing anti-cancer drugs. In the present study, we have assessed wogonin, a flavonoid compound isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, induced ROS generation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cell apoptosis. Wogonin induced cell death in two different human glioma cells, such as U251 and U87 cells but not in human primary astrocytes (IC 50 > 100 μM). Wogonin-induced apoptotic cell death in glioma cells was measured by propidine iodine (PI) analysis, Tunnel assay and Annexin V staining methods. Furthermore, wogonin also induced caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation as well as up-regulation of cleaved PARP expression. Moreover, treatment of wogonin also increased a number of signature ER stress markers glucose-regulated protein (GRP)-78, GRP-94, Calpain I, and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF2α). Treatment of human glioma cells with wogonin was found to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Wogonin induced ER stress-related protein expression and cell apoptosis was reduced by the ROS inhibitors apocynin and NAC (N-acetylcysteine). The present study provides evidence to support the fact that wogonin induces human glioma cell apoptosis mediated ROS generation, ER stress activation and cell apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Programmed Cell Death and Apoptosis)
Open AccessArticle Development of Microsatellite Markers Using Pyrosequencing in Galium trifidum (Rubiaceae), a Rare Species in Central Europe
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9893-9899; doi:10.3390/ijms13089893
Received: 9 July 2012 / Revised: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 25 July 2012 / Published: 8 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (135 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We identify a large number of microsatellites from Galium trfidum, a plant species considered rare and endangered in Central and Western Europe. Using a combination of a total enriched genomic library and small-scale 454 pyrosequencing, we determined 9755 contigs with a length
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We identify a large number of microsatellites from Galium trfidum, a plant species considered rare and endangered in Central and Western Europe. Using a combination of a total enriched genomic library and small-scale 454 pyrosequencing, we determined 9755 contigs with a length of 100 to 6192 bp. Within this dataset, we identified 153 SSR motifs in 144 contigs. Here, we tested 14 microsatellite loci in 2 populations of G. trifidum. The number of alleles and expected heterozygosity were 1–8 (mean 3.2) and 0.00–0.876 (0.549 on average), respectively. The markers described in this study will be useful for evaluating genetic diversity within and between populations, and gene flow between G. trifidum populations. These markers could also be applied to investigate the biological aspects of G. trifidum, such as the population dynamics and clonal structure, and to develop effective conservation programs for the Central European populations of this species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles through Reduction with Solanum xanthocarpum L. Berry Extract: Characterization, Antimicrobial and Urease Inhibitory Activities against Helicobacter pylori
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9923-9941; doi:10.3390/ijms13089923
Received: 1 June 2012 / Revised: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 25 July 2012 / Published: 9 August 2012
Cited by 63 | PDF Full-text (565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A green synthesis route for the production of silver nanoparticles using methanol extract from Solanum xanthocarpum berry (SXE) is reported in the present investigation. Silver nanoparticles (AgNps), having a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band centered at 406 nm, were synthesized by reacting SXE
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A green synthesis route for the production of silver nanoparticles using methanol extract from Solanum xanthocarpum berry (SXE) is reported in the present investigation. Silver nanoparticles (AgNps), having a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band centered at 406 nm, were synthesized by reacting SXE (as capping as well as reducing agent) with AgNO3 during a 25 min process at 45 °C. The synthesized AgNps were characterized using UV–Visible spectrophotometry, powdered X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the time of reaction, temperature and volume ratio of SXE to AgNO3 could accelerate the reduction rate of Ag+ and affect the AgNps size and shape. The nanoparticles were found to be about 10 nm in size, mono-dispersed in nature, and spherical in shape. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of synthesized AgNps was tested against 34 clinical isolates and two reference strains of Helicobacter pylori by the agar dilution method and compared with AgNO3 and four standard drugs, namely amoxicillin (AMX), clarithromycin (CLA), metronidazole (MNZ) and tetracycline (TET), being used in anti-H. pylori therapy. Typical AgNps sample (S1) effectively inhibited the growth of H. pylori, indicating a stronger anti-H. pylori activity than that of AgNO3 or MNZ, being almost equally potent to TET and less potent than AMX and CLA. AgNps under study were found to be equally efficient against the antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible strains of H. pylori. Besides, in the H. pylori urease inhibitory assay, S1 also exhibited a significant inhibition. Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed that the mechanism of inhibition was noncompetitive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2012)
Open AccessArticle Methods for Identification of CA125 from Ovarian Cancer Ascites by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9942-9958; doi:10.3390/ijms13089942
Received: 15 May 2012 / Revised: 11 July 2012 / Accepted: 24 July 2012 / Published: 9 August 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (589 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
CA125 is the most widely used tumour marker in ovarian cancer with unsatisfactory sensitivity and specificity especially at early stage. It is quantified by antibody-based immunoassays; however different molecular weight isoforms have been described in the literature which have never been validated by
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CA125 is the most widely used tumour marker in ovarian cancer with unsatisfactory sensitivity and specificity especially at early stage. It is quantified by antibody-based immunoassays; however different molecular weight isoforms have been described in the literature which have never been validated by mass spectrometry, potentially affecting the diagnostic accuracy and clinical reliability of the test. In this study, CA125 was detected by Western blot and its identity confirmed by mass spectrometry. Two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis in combination with mass spectrometry revealed that positive Western blot signals up to 500 kDa are most likely false-positive interactions of M11-like and OC125-like antibodies. Fibronectin, identified as one of these false-positive interaction partners, increased the reading for CA125 in a first generation ELISA significantly (p = 0.02). The existence of low-molecular weight isoforms of CA125 is therefore questionable and is most likely reflecting cross-reactivity of the antibodies with other proteins. This would explain the conflicting reports on the molecular structure of CA125 and also the inconsistency of CA125 levels by different ELISAs. Our results are also the first steps towards a mass spectrometric assay for CA125 quantification, which would improve sensitivity and reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Molecules in Ovarian Cancer 2012)
Open AccessArticle Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) Assay as an In Vivo Model to Study the Effect of Newly Identified Molecules on Ovarian Cancer Invasion and Metastasis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9959-9970; doi:10.3390/ijms13089959
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 27 July 2012 / Accepted: 2 August 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
Cited by 51 | PDF Full-text (221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The majority of ovarian cancer patients present with advanced disease and despite aggressive treatment, prognosis remains poor. Significant improvement in ovarian cancer survival will require the development of more effective molecularly targeted therapeutics. Commonly, mouse models are used for the in vivo assessment
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The majority of ovarian cancer patients present with advanced disease and despite aggressive treatment, prognosis remains poor. Significant improvement in ovarian cancer survival will require the development of more effective molecularly targeted therapeutics. Commonly, mouse models are used for the in vivo assessment of potential new therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer. However, animal models are costly and time consuming. Other models, such as the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, are therefore an attractive alternative. CAM assays have been widely used to study angiogenesis and tumor invasion of colorectal, prostate and brain cancers. However, there have been limited studies that have used CAM assays to assess ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis. We have therefore developed a CAM assay protocol to monitor the metastatic properties of ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and OV-90) and to study the effect of potential therapeutic molecules in vivo. The results from the CAM assay are consistent with cancer cell motility and invasion observed in in vitro assays. Our results demonstrate that the CAM assay is a robust and cost effective model to study ovarian cancer cell metastasis. It is therefore a very useful in vivo model for screening of potential novel therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Molecules in Ovarian Cancer 2012)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Triptorelin Lactate Catalyzed by Lipase in Organic Media
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9971-9979; doi:10.3390/ijms13089971
Received: 23 May 2012 / Revised: 30 June 2012 / Accepted: 2 August 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
PDF Full-text (129 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Triptorelin lactate was successfully synthesized by porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) in organic solvents. The effects of acyl donor, substrate ratio, organic solvent, temperature, and water activity were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, a yield of 30% for its ester could be achieved in
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Triptorelin lactate was successfully synthesized by porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) in organic solvents. The effects of acyl donor, substrate ratio, organic solvent, temperature, and water activity were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, a yield of 30% for its ester could be achieved in the reaction for about 48 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Optimization and Immobilization)
Open AccessArticle Combined Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN) Loss and Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) Overexpression Worsens the Prognosis of Chinese Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9980-9991; doi:10.3390/ijms13089980
Received: 12 June 2012 / Revised: 26 July 2012 / Accepted: 1 August 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (457 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We aimed to investigate the expression pattern of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), to evaluate the relationship between PTEN expression and clinicopathological characteristics, including fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression, and to determine the correlations of PTEN and FAS expression with survival in Chinese
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We aimed to investigate the expression pattern of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), to evaluate the relationship between PTEN expression and clinicopathological characteristics, including fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression, and to determine the correlations of PTEN and FAS expression with survival in Chinese patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The expression patterns of PTEN and FAS were determined using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry. The expression of PTEN was compared with the clinicopathological characteristics of HCC, including FAS expression. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to calculate the clinical sensitivity and specificity of PTEN expression. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed to evaluate the correlations of PTEN loss and FAS overexpression with overall survival. We found that the loss of PTEN expression occurred predominantly in the cytoplasm, while FAS was mainly localized to the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic and total PTEN expression levels were significantly decreased in HCC compared with adjacent non-neoplastic tissue (both, p < 0.0001). Decreased cytoplasmic and total PTEN expression showed significant clinical sensitivity and specificity for HCC (both, p < 0.0001). Downregulation of PTEN in HCC relative to non-neoplastic tissue was significantly correlated with histological grade (p = 0.043 for histological grades I–II versus grade III). Loss of total PTEN was significantly correlated with FAS overexpression (p = 0.014). Loss of PTEN was also associated with poor prognosis of patients with poorly differentiated HCC (p = 0.049). Moreover, loss of PTEN combined with FAS overexpression was associated with significantly worse prognosis compared with other HCC cases (p = 0.011). Our data indicate that PTEN may serve as a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker of HCC. Upregulating PTEN expression and inhibiting FAS expression may offer a novel therapeutic approach for HCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diagnostics)
Open AccessArticle RNA-Mediated Gene Silencing Signals Are Not Graft Transmissible from the Rootstock to the Scion in Greenhouse-Grown Apple Plants Malus sp.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9992-10009; doi:10.3390/ijms13089992
Received: 20 June 2012 / Revised: 18 July 2012 / Accepted: 25 July 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (546 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
RNA silencing describes the sequence specific degradation of RNA targets. Silencing is a non-cell autonomous event that is graft transmissible in different plant species. The present study is the first report on systemic acquired dsRNA-mediated gene silencing of transgenic and endogenous gene sequences
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RNA silencing describes the sequence specific degradation of RNA targets. Silencing is a non-cell autonomous event that is graft transmissible in different plant species. The present study is the first report on systemic acquired dsRNA-mediated gene silencing of transgenic and endogenous gene sequences in a woody plant like apple. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing a hairpin gene construct of the gusA reporter gene were produced. These plants were used as rootstocks and grafted with scions of the gusA overexpressing transgenic apple clone T355. After grafting, we observed a reduction of the gusA gene expression in T355 scions in vitro, but not in T355 scions grown in the greenhouse. Similar results were obtained after silencing of the endogenous Mdans gene in apple that is responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Subsequently, we performed grafting experiments with Mdans silenced rootstocks and red leaf scions of TNR31-35 in order to evaluate graft transmitted silencing of the endogenous Mdans. The results obtained suggested a graft transmission of silencing signals in in vitro shoots. In contrast, no graft transmission of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing signals was detectable in greenhouse-grown plants and in plants grown in an insect protection tent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessArticle Effects of a Buried Cysteine-To-Serine Mutation on Yeast Triosephosphate Isomerase Structure and Stability
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10010-10021; doi:10.3390/ijms130810010
Received: 4 June 2012 / Revised: 24 July 2012 / Accepted: 26 July 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (766 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
All the members of the triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) family possess a cystein residue (Cys126) located near the catalytically essential Glu165. The evolutionarily conserved Cys126, however, does not seem to play a significant role in the catalytic activity. On the other hand, substitution of
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All the members of the triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) family possess a cystein residue (Cys126) located near the catalytically essential Glu165. The evolutionarily conserved Cys126, however, does not seem to play a significant role in the catalytic activity. On the other hand, substitution of this residue by other amino acid residues destabilizes the dimeric enzyme, especially when Cys is replaced by Ser. In trying to assess the origin of this destabilization we have determined the crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TIM (ScTIM) at 1.86 Å resolution in the presence of PGA, which is only bound to one subunit. Comparisons of the wild type and mutant structures reveal that a change in the orientation of the Ser hydroxyl group, with respect to the Cys sulfhydryl group, leads to penetration of water molecules and apparent destabilization of residues 132–138. The latter results were confirmed by means of Molecular Dynamics, which showed that this region, in the mutated enzyme, collapses at about 70 ns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Crystallography in Molecular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle 2,3-Dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[b]quinoline Derivatives as Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors—Synthesis, Radiolabeling and Biodistribution
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10067-10090; doi:10.3390/ijms130810067
Received: 14 June 2012 / Revised: 7 July 2012 / Accepted: 6 August 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (764 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present study we describe the synthesis and biological assessment of new tacrine analogs in the course of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. The obtained molecules were synthesized in a condensation reaction between activated 6-BOC-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid and 8-aminoalkyl derivatives of 2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[b]quinoline. Activities
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In the present study we describe the synthesis and biological assessment of new tacrine analogs in the course of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. The obtained molecules were synthesized in a condensation reaction between activated 6-BOC-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid and 8-aminoalkyl derivatives of 2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[b]quinoline. Activities of the newly synthesized compounds were estimated by means of Ellman’s method. Compound 6h (IC50 = 3.65 nM) was found to be most active. All obtained novel compounds present comparable activity to that of tacrine towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and, simultaneously, lower activity towards butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Apart from 6a, all synthesized compounds are characterized by a higher affinity for AChE and a lower affinity for BChE in comparison with tacrine. Among all obtained molecules, compound 6h presented the highest selectivity towards inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Molecular modeling showed that all compounds demonstrated a similar binding mode with AChE and interacted with catalytic and peripheral sites of AChE. Also, a biodistribution study of compound 6a radiolabeled with 99mTc was performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Open AccessArticle New Biofuel Integrating Glycerol into Its Composition Through the Use of Covalent Immobilized Pig Pancreatic Lipase
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10091-10112; doi:10.3390/ijms130810091
Received: 9 July 2012 / Revised: 26 July 2012 / Accepted: 2 August 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
By using 1,3-specific Pig Pancreatic lipase (EC 3.1.1.3 or PPL), covalently immobilized on AlPO4/Sepiolite support as biocatalyst, a new second-generation biodiesel was obtained in the transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with ethanol and other alcohols of low molecular weight. The resulting
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By using 1,3-specific Pig Pancreatic lipase (EC 3.1.1.3 or PPL), covalently immobilized on AlPO4/Sepiolite support as biocatalyst, a new second-generation biodiesel was obtained in the transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with ethanol and other alcohols of low molecular weight. The resulting biofuel is composed of fatty acid ethyl esters and monoglycerides (FAEE/MG) blended in a molar relation 2/1. This novel product, which integrates glycerol as monoacylglycerols (MG) into the biofuel composition, has similar physicochemical properties compared to those of conventional biodiesel and also avoids the removal step of this by-product. The biocatalyst was found to be strongly fixed to the inorganic support (75%). Nevertheless, the efficiency of the immobilized enzyme was reduced to half (49.1%) compared to that of the free PPL. The immobilized enzyme showed a remarkable stability as well as a great reusability (more than 40 successive reuses) without a significant loss of its initial catalytic activity. Immobilized and free enzymes exhibited different reaction mechanisms, according to the different results in the Arrhenius parameters (Ln A and Ea). However, the use of supported PPL was found to be very suitable for the repetitive production of biofuel due to its facile recyclability from the reaction mixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Optimization and Immobilization)
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Open AccessArticle Quantitative Expression of C-Type Lectin Receptors in Humans and Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10113-10131; doi:10.3390/ijms130810113
Received: 15 June 2012 / Revised: 26 July 2012 / Accepted: 6 August 2012 / Published: 14 August 2012
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (748 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
C-type lectin receptors and their adaptor molecules are involved in the recognition of glycosylated self-antigens and pathogens. However, little is known about the species- and organ-specific expression profiles of these molecules. We therefore determined the mRNA expression levels of Dectin-1, MR1, MR2, DC-SIGN,
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C-type lectin receptors and their adaptor molecules are involved in the recognition of glycosylated self-antigens and pathogens. However, little is known about the species- and organ-specific expression profiles of these molecules. We therefore determined the mRNA expression levels of Dectin-1, MR1, MR2, DC-SIGN, Syk, Card-9, Bcl-10, Malt-1, Src, Dec-205, Galectin-1, Tim-3, Trem-1, and DAP-12 in 11 solid organs of human and mice. Mouse organs revealed lower mRNA levels of most molecules compared to spleen. However, Dec-205 and Galectin-1 in thymus, Src in brain, MR2, Card-9, Bcl-10, Src, and Dec-205 in small intestine, MR2, Bcl-10, Src, Galectin-1 in kidney, and Src and Galectin-1 in muscle were at least 2-fold higher expressed compared to spleen. Human lung, liver and heart expressed higher mRNA levels of most genes compared to spleen. Dectin-1, MR1, Syk and Trem-1 mRNA were strongly up-regulated upon ischemia-reperfusion injury in murine kidney. Tim3, DAP-12, Card-9, DC-SIGN and MR2 were further up-regulated during renal fibrosis. Murine kidney showed higher DAP-12, Syk, Card-9 and Dectin-1 mRNA expression during the progression of lupus nephritis. Thus, the organ-, and species-specific expression of C-type lectin receptors is different between mice and humans which must be considered in the interpretation of related studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Cyclodextrin-Based [1]Rotaxanes on Gold Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10132-10142; doi:10.3390/ijms130810132
Received: 19 July 2012 / Revised: 28 July 2012 / Accepted: 3 August 2012 / Published: 14 August 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (751 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Transformation of mechanically interlocked molecules (e.g., rotaxanes and catenanes) into nanoscale materials or devices is an important step towards their real applications. In our current work, an azobenzene-modified β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) derivative that can form a self-inclusion complex in aqueous solution was prepared. The
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Transformation of mechanically interlocked molecules (e.g., rotaxanes and catenanes) into nanoscale materials or devices is an important step towards their real applications. In our current work, an azobenzene-modified β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) derivative that can form a self-inclusion complex in aqueous solution was prepared. The self-included β-CD derivative was then functionalized onto a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) surface via a ligand-exchange reaction in aqueous solution, leading to the formation of AuNP-[1]rotaxane hybrids. Corresponding non-self-included β-CD derivative functionalized AuNPs were also developed in a DMF/H2O mixture solution for control experiments. These hybrids were fully characterized by UV-vis and circular dichroism spectroscopies, together with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The competitive binding behavior of the hybrids with an adamantane dimer was investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Recognition)
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Open AccessArticle The Opuntia streptacantha OpsHSP18 Gene Confers Salt and Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10154-10175; doi:10.3390/ijms130810154
Received: 27 May 2012 / Revised: 1 August 2012 / Accepted: 7 August 2012 / Published: 15 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (494 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Abiotic stress limits seed germination, plant growth, flowering and fruit quality, causing economic decrease. Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are chaperons with roles in stress tolerance. Herein, we report the functional characterization of a cytosolic class CI sHSP (OpsHSP18) from Opuntia streptacantha during
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Abiotic stress limits seed germination, plant growth, flowering and fruit quality, causing economic decrease. Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are chaperons with roles in stress tolerance. Herein, we report the functional characterization of a cytosolic class CI sHSP (OpsHSP18) from Opuntia streptacantha during seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines subjected to different stress and hormone treatments. The over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene in A. thaliana increased the seed germination rate under salt (NaCl) and osmotic (glucose and mannitol) stress, and in ABA treatments, compared with WT. On the other hand, the over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene enhanced tolerance to salt (150 mM NaCl) and osmotic (274 mM mannitol) stress in Arabidopsis seedlings treated during 14 and 21 days, respectively. These plants showed increased survival rates (52.00 and 73.33%, respectively) with respect to the WT (18.75 and 53.75%, respectively). Thus, our results show that OpsHSP18 gene might have an important role in abiotic stress tolerance, in particular in seed germination and survival rate of Arabidopsis plants under unfavorable conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Helicobacter pylori Disrupts Host Cell Membranes, Initiating a Repair Response and Cell Proliferation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10176-10192; doi:10.3390/ijms130810176
Received: 5 June 2012 / Revised: 3 August 2012 / Accepted: 7 August 2012 / Published: 15 August 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (878 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), the human stomach pathogen, lives on the inner surface of the stomach and causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Plasma membrane repair response is a matter of life and death for human cells against physical
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Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), the human stomach pathogen, lives on the inner surface of the stomach and causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Plasma membrane repair response is a matter of life and death for human cells against physical and biological damage. We here test the hypothesis that H. pylori also causes plasma membrane disruption injury, and that not only a membrane repair response but also a cell proliferation response are thereby activated. Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) have been considered to be major H. pylori virulence factors. Gastric cancer cells were infected with H. pylori wild type (vacA+/cagA+), single mutant (ΔvacA or ΔcagA) or double mutant (ΔvacA/ΔcagA) strains and plasma membrane disruption events and consequent activation of membrane repair components monitored. H. pylori disrupts the host cell plasma membrane, allowing localized dye and extracellular Ca2+ influx. Ca2+-triggered members of the annexin family, A1 and A4, translocate, in response to injury, to the plasma membrane, and cell surface expression of an exocytotic maker of repair, LAMP-2, increases. Additional forms of plasma membrane disruption, unrelated to H. pylori exposure, also promote host cell proliferation. We propose that H. pylori activation of a plasma membrane repair is pro-proliferative. This study might therefore provide new insight into potential mechanisms of H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Oncology (special issue))
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Open AccessArticle Structural and Oxidative Changes in the Kidney of Crucian Carp Induced by Silicon-Based Quantum Dots
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10193-10211; doi:10.3390/ijms130810193
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 28 July 2012 / Accepted: 9 August 2012 / Published: 16 August 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (419 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Silicon-based quantum dots were intraperitoneally injected in Carassius auratus gibelio specimens and, over one week, the effects on renal tissue were investigated by following their distribution and histological effects, as well as antioxidative system modifications. After three and seven days, detached epithelial cells
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Silicon-based quantum dots were intraperitoneally injected in Carassius auratus gibelio specimens and, over one week, the effects on renal tissue were investigated by following their distribution and histological effects, as well as antioxidative system modifications. After three and seven days, detached epithelial cells from the basal lamina, dilated tubules and debris in the lumen of tubules were observed. At day 7, nephrogenesis was noticed. The reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration decreased in the first three days and started to rise later on. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased only after one week, whereas catalase (CAT) was up-regulated in a time-dependent manner. The activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidise (GPX) decreased dramatically by approximately 50% compared to control, whereas the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) increased significantly after 3 and 7 days of treatment. Oxidative modifications of proteins and the time-dependent increase of Hsp70 expression were also registered. Our data suggest that silicon-based quantum dots induced oxidative stress followed by structural damages. However, renal tissue is capable of restoring its integrity by nephron development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2012)
Open AccessArticle Mitochondrial Adaptations to Oxidative Stress Confer Resistance to Apoptosis in Lymphoma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10212-10228; doi:10.3390/ijms130810212
Received: 12 June 2012 / Revised: 7 August 2012 / Accepted: 14 August 2012 / Published: 16 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1912 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Acquired resistance to drugs commonly used for lymphoma treatment poses a significant barrier to improving lymphoma patient survival. Previous work with a lymphoma tissue culture model indicates that selection for resistance to oxidative stress confers resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. This suggests that adaptation
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Acquired resistance to drugs commonly used for lymphoma treatment poses a significant barrier to improving lymphoma patient survival. Previous work with a lymphoma tissue culture model indicates that selection for resistance to oxidative stress confers resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. This suggests that adaptation to chronic oxidative stress can contribute to chemoresistance seen in lymphoma patients. Oxidative stress-resistant WEHI7.2 cell variants in a lymphoma tissue culture model exhibit a range of apoptosis sensitivities. We exploited this phenotype to test for mitochondrial changes affecting sensitivity to apoptosis in cells made resistant to oxidative stress. We identified impaired release of cytochrome c, and the intermembrane proteins adenylate kinase 2 and Smac/DIABLO, indicating inhibition of the pathway leading to permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane. Blunting of a glucocorticoid-induced signal and intrinsic mitochondrial resistance to cytochrome c release contributed to both points of resistance. The level of Bcl-2 family members or a difference in Bim induction were not contributing factors. The extent of cardiolipin oxidation following dexamethasone treatment, however, did correlate with apoptosis resistance. The differences found in the variants were all proportionate to the degree of resistance to glucocorticoid treatment. We conclude that tolerance to oxidative stress leads to mitochondrial changes that confer resistance to apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine)
Open AccessArticle Bone Marrow-Derived HipOP Cell Population Is Markedly Enriched in Osteoprogenitors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10229-10235; doi:10.3390/ijms130810229
Received: 10 July 2012 / Revised: 1 August 2012 / Accepted: 6 August 2012 / Published: 16 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We recently succeeded in purifying a novel multipotential progenitor or stem cell population from bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). This population exhibited a very high frequency of colony forming units-osteoblast (CFU-O; 100 times higher than in BMSCs) and high expression levels of osteoblast
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We recently succeeded in purifying a novel multipotential progenitor or stem cell population from bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). This population exhibited a very high frequency of colony forming units-osteoblast (CFU-O; 100 times higher than in BMSCs) and high expression levels of osteoblast differentiation markers. Furthermore, large masses of mineralized tissue were observed in in vivo transplants with this new population, designated highly purified osteoprogenitors (HipOPs). We now report the detailed presence and localization of HipOPs and recipient cells in transplants, and demonstrate that there is a strong relationship between the mineralized tissue volume formed and the transplanted number of HipOPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Pink Stem Borer, Sesamia inferens, in Comparison with Four Other Noctuid Moths
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10236-10256; doi:10.3390/ijms130810236
Received: 25 May 2012 / Revised: 1 August 2012 / Accepted: 11 August 2012 / Published: 16 August 2012
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (550 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The complete 15,413-bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was sequenced and compared with those of four other noctuid moths. All of the mitogenomes analyzed displayed similar characteristics with respect to gene content, genome organization, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages.
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The complete 15,413-bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was sequenced and compared with those of four other noctuid moths. All of the mitogenomes analyzed displayed similar characteristics with respect to gene content, genome organization, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Twelve-one protein-coding genes (PCGs) utilized the standard ATN, but the cox1 gene used CGA as the initiation codon; cox1, cox2, and nad4 genes had the truncated termination codon T in the S. inferens mitogenome. All of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures except for trnS1(AGN), in which the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Both the secondary structures of rrnL and rrnS genes inferred from the S. inferens mitogenome closely resembled those of other noctuid moths. In the A+T-rich region, the conserved motif “ATAGA” followed by a long T-stretch was observed in all noctuid moths, but other specific tandem-repeat elements were more variable. Additionally, the S. inferens mitogenome contained a potential stem-loop structure, a duplicated 17-bp repeat element, a decuplicated segment, and a microsatellite “(AT)7”, without a poly-A element upstream of the trnM in the A+T-rich region. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed based on amino acid sequences of mitochondrial 13 PCGs, which support the traditional morphologically based view of relationships within the Noctuidae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties and Mineral Composition of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) at Different Growth Stages
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10257-10267; doi:10.3390/ijms130810257
Received: 13 July 2012 / Revised: 16 August 2012 / Accepted: 16 August 2012 / Published: 16 August 2012
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (113 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main objective of this research was to appraise the changes in mineral content and antioxidant attributes of Portulaca oleracea over different growth stages. The antioxidant activity was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The iodine titration method was used
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The main objective of this research was to appraise the changes in mineral content and antioxidant attributes of Portulaca oleracea over different growth stages. The antioxidant activity was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The iodine titration method was used to determine the ascorbic acid content (AAC). DPPH scavenging (IC50) capacity ranged from 1.30 ± 0.04 to 1.71 ± 0.04 mg/mL, while the ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant activity (AEAC) values were 229.5 ± 7.9 to 319.3 ± 8.7 mg AA/100 g, total phenol content (TPC) varied from 174.5 ± 8.5 to 348.5 ± 7.9 mg GAE/100 g. AAC 60.5 ± 2.1 to 86.5 ± 3.9 mg/100 g and FRAP 1.8 ± 0.1 to 4.3 ± 0.1 mg GAE/g. There was good correlation between the results of TPC and AEAC, and between IC50 and FRAP assays (r2 > 0.9). The concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, Fe and Zn increased with plant maturity. Calcium (Ca) was negatively correlated with sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl), but positively correlated with magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Portulaca olerecea cultivars could be used as a source of minerals and antioxidants, especially for functional food and nutraceutical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Humidity and Surfaces on the Melt Crystallization of Ibuprofen
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10296-10304; doi:10.3390/ijms130810296
Received: 19 July 2012 / Revised: 4 August 2012 / Accepted: 16 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (578 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Melt crystallization of ibuprofen was studied to understand the effects of humidity and surfaces. The molecular self-assembly during the amorphous-to-crystal transformation was examined in terms of the nucleation and growth of the crystals. The crystallization was on Al, Au, and self-assembled monolayers with
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Melt crystallization of ibuprofen was studied to understand the effects of humidity and surfaces. The molecular self-assembly during the amorphous-to-crystal transformation was examined in terms of the nucleation and growth of the crystals. The crystallization was on Al, Au, and self-assembled monolayers with –CH3, –OH, and –COOH functional groups. Effects of the humidity were studied at room temperature (18–20 °C) with relative humidity 33%, 75%, and 100%. Effects of the surfaces were observed at −20 °C (relative humidity 36%) to enable close monitoring with slower crystal growth. The nucleation time of ibuprofen was faster at high humidity conditions probably due to the local formation of the unfavorable ibuprofen melt/water interface. The crystal morphologies of ibuprofen were governed by the nature of the surfaces, and they could be associated with the growth kinetics by the Avrami equation. The current study demonstrated the effective control of the melt crystallization of ibuprofen through the melt/atmosphere and melt/surface interfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Self-Assembly 2012)
Open AccessArticle Comparative Characterization of Total Flavonol Glycosides and Terpene Lactones at Different Ages, from Different Cultivation Sources and Genders of Ginkgo biloba Leaves
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10305-10315; doi:10.3390/ijms130810305
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 20 July 2012 / Accepted: 8 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The extract from Ginkgo biloba leaves has become a very popular plant medicine and herbal supplement for its potential benefit in alleviating symptoms associated with peripheral vascular disease, dementia, asthma and tinnitus. Most research on G. biloba leaves focus on the leaves collected
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The extract from Ginkgo biloba leaves has become a very popular plant medicine and herbal supplement for its potential benefit in alleviating symptoms associated with peripheral vascular disease, dementia, asthma and tinnitus. Most research on G. biloba leaves focus on the leaves collected in July and August from four to seven year-old trees, however a large number of leaves from fruit cultivars (trees older than 10 years) are ignored and become obsolete after fruit harvest season (November). In this paper, we expand the tree age range (from one to 300 years) and first comparatively analyze the total flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones at different ages, from different cultivation sources and genders of G. biloba leaves collected in November by using the validated HPLC-ELSD and HPLC-PDA methods. The results show that the contents of total terpene lactones and flavonol glycosides in the leaves of young ginkgo trees are higher than those in old trees, and they are higher in male trees than in female trees. Geographical factors appear to have a significant influence on the contents as well. These results will provide a good basis for the comprehensive utilization of G. biloba leaves, especially the leaves from fruit cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Rice Bran Oil on the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolism of Isoflavones in Adult Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10336-10349; doi:10.3390/ijms130810336
Received: 30 May 2012 / Revised: 26 July 2012 / Accepted: 3 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined the effects of rice bran oil (RBO) on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Dietary RBO affects intestinal cholesterol absorption. Intestinal microbiota seem to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. We hypothesized that dietary RBO changes the metabolism of
[...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of rice bran oil (RBO) on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Dietary RBO affects intestinal cholesterol absorption. Intestinal microbiota seem to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. We hypothesized that dietary RBO changes the metabolism of isoflavonoids and intestinal microbiota in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 10% RBO diet (RO group) and those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 10% lard control diet (LO group) for 30 days. Urinary amounts of daidzein and dihydrodaidzein were significantly lower in the RO group than in the LO group. The ratio of equol/daidzein was significantly higher in the RO group (p < 0.01) than in the LO group. The amount of fecal bile acids was significantly greater in the RO group than in the LO group. The composition of cecal microbiota differed between the RO and LO groups. The occupation ratios of Lactobacillales were significantly higher in the RO group (p < 0.05). Significant positive correlation (r = 0.591) was observed between the occupation ratios of Lactobacillales and fecal bile acid content of two dietary groups. This study suggests that dietary rice bran oil has the potential to affect the metabolism of daidzein by altering the metabolic activity of intestinal microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle An Investigation on the Thermal Effusivity of Nanofluids Containing Al2O3 and CuO Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10350-10358; doi:10.3390/ijms130810350
Received: 6 June 2012 / Revised: 28 June 2012 / Accepted: 6 August 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The thermal effusivity of Al2O3 and CuO nanofluids in different base fluids, i.e., deionized water, ethylene glycol and olive oil were investigated. The nanofluids, nanoparticles dispersed in base fluids; were prepared by mixing Al2O3, CuO
[...] Read more.
The thermal effusivity of Al2O3 and CuO nanofluids in different base fluids, i.e., deionized water, ethylene glycol and olive oil were investigated. The nanofluids, nanoparticles dispersed in base fluids; were prepared by mixing Al2O3, CuO nanopowder and the base fluids using sonication with high-powered pulses to ensure a good uniform dispersion of nanoparticles in the base fluids. The morphology of the particles in the base fluids was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In this study, a phase frequency scan of the front pyroelectric configuration technique, with a thermally thick PVDF pyroelectric sensor and sample, was used to measure the thermal effusivity of the prepared nanofluids. The experimental results of the thermal effusivity of the studied solvents (deionized water, ethylene glycol and olive oil) showed good agreement with literature values, and were reduced in the presence of nanoparticles. The thermal effusivity of the nanofluid was found to be particularly sensitive to its base fluid and the type of nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences and Nanotechnology)
Open AccessArticle Melanogenesis Inhibition by Homoisoflavavone Sappanone A from Caesalpinia sappan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10359-10367; doi:10.3390/ijms130810359
Received: 4 July 2012 / Revised: 8 August 2012 / Accepted: 9 August 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Homoisoflavanone, sappanone A, was isolated from Caesalpinia sappan and proven to dose-dependently inhibit both melanogenesis and cellular tyrosinase activity via repressing tyrosinase gene expression in mouse B16 melanoma cells. To our knowledge, sappanone A is the first homoisoflavanone to be discovered with melanogenesis
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Homoisoflavanone, sappanone A, was isolated from Caesalpinia sappan and proven to dose-dependently inhibit both melanogenesis and cellular tyrosinase activity via repressing tyrosinase gene expression in mouse B16 melanoma cells. To our knowledge, sappanone A is the first homoisoflavanone to be discovered with melanogenesis inhibitory activity. Our results give a new impetus to the future search for other homoisoflavanone melanogenesis inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle MUC16/CA125 in the Context of Modular Proteins with an Annotated Role in Adhesion-Related Processes: In Silico Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10387-10400; doi:10.3390/ijms130810387
Received: 19 June 2012 / Revised: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 9 August 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
PDF Full-text (194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mucin 16 (MUC16) is a type I transmembrane protein, the extracellular portion of which is shed after proteolytic degradation and is denoted as CA125 antigen, a well known tumor marker for ovarian cancer. Regarding its polypeptide and glycan structures, as yet there is
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Mucin 16 (MUC16) is a type I transmembrane protein, the extracellular portion of which is shed after proteolytic degradation and is denoted as CA125 antigen, a well known tumor marker for ovarian cancer. Regarding its polypeptide and glycan structures, as yet there is no detailed insight into their heterogeneity and ligand properties, which may greatly influence its function and biomarker potential. This study was aimed at obtaining further insight into the biological capacity of MUC16/CA125, using in silico analysis of corresponding mucin sequences, including similarity searches as well as GO (gene ontology)-based function prediction. The results obtained pointed to the similarities within extracellular serine/threonine rich regions of MUC16 to sequences of proteins expressed in evolutionary distant taxa, all having in common an annotated role in adhesion-related processes. Specifically, a homology to conserved domains from the family of herpesvirus major outer envelope protein (BLLF1) was found. In addition, the possible involvement of MUC16/CA125 in carbohydrate-binding interactions or cellular transport of protein/ion was suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Molecules in Ovarian Cancer 2012)
Open AccessArticle A Density Functional Theory Study on the Deformation Behaviors of Fe-Si-B Metallic Glasses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10401-10409; doi:10.3390/ijms130810401
Received: 4 June 2012 / Revised: 3 August 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1683 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Density functional theory has been employed to investigate the deformation behaviors of glassy Fe-Si-B model systems prepared by ab initio molecular dynamics. The atomistic deformation defects which are closely related to the local dilation volumes or excess volumes and unstable bonding have been
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Density functional theory has been employed to investigate the deformation behaviors of glassy Fe-Si-B model systems prepared by ab initio molecular dynamics. The atomistic deformation defects which are closely related to the local dilation volumes or excess volumes and unstable bonding have been systematically analyzed. It has been found that the icosahedral structures are relatively stable under shear deformation until fracture occurs. Plastic flow is indicated by interruption of percolating icosahedral structures, caused by unstable Fe-Si bonding of p-s hybridization in nature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Density Functional Theory)
Open AccessArticle Identification of Tillering Node Proteins Differentially Accumulated in Barley Recombinant Inbred Lines with Different Juvenile Growth Habits
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10410-10423; doi:10.3390/ijms130810410
Received: 12 June 2012 / Revised: 8 August 2012 / Accepted: 14 August 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important cereal crop grown for both the feed and malting industries. The allelic dwarfing gene sdw1/denso has been used throughout the world to develop commercial barley varieties. Proteomic analysis offers a new approach to identify a
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Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important cereal crop grown for both the feed and malting industries. The allelic dwarfing gene sdw1/denso has been used throughout the world to develop commercial barley varieties. Proteomic analysis offers a new approach to identify a broad spectrum of genes that are expressed in the living system. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were applied to investigate changes in protein abundance associated with different juvenile growth habit as effect of the denso locus in barley homozygous lines derived from a Maresi × Pomo cross combination. A total of 31 protein spots were revealed that demonstrate quantitative differences in protein abundance between the analyzed plants with different juvenile growth habit, and these protein spots were selected to be identified by mass spectrometry. Identification was successful for 27 spots, and functional annotations of proteins revealed that most of them are involved in metabolism and disease/defense-related processes. Functions of the identified proteins and their probable influence on the growth habit in barley are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Advances in Proteomic Research)
Open AccessArticle An iRGD Based Strategy to Study Electrochemically the Species Inside a Cell
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10424-10431; doi:10.3390/ijms130810424
Received: 15 May 2012 / Revised: 27 June 2012 / Accepted: 9 August 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (397 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reports a method for electrical communication between the inner part of cells and an electrode with the help of iRGD peptide. Due to the enhancement of the cell penetration caused by iRGD peptide, DNA molecules, previously modified on a gold electrode
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This paper reports a method for electrical communication between the inner part of cells and an electrode with the help of iRGD peptide. Due to the enhancement of the cell penetration caused by iRGD peptide, DNA molecules, previously modified on a gold electrode surface, can be easily transfected into the cells. At the same time, doxorubicin, an anticancer drug, can also be transfected into cells with high penetration. Consequently, doxorubicin binds to DNA chains through electrostatic interaction, and the redox reaction is transferred out of the cell across the cell membrane. As a result, this work may provide a novel way to get information from inside of cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Efficient Total Synthesis of a Potent Anti-Inflammatory Agent, Benzocamphorin F, and Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10432-10440; doi:10.3390/ijms130810432
Received: 26 June 2012 / Revised: 10 August 2012 / Accepted: 16 August 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A naturally occurring enynyl-benzenoid, benzocamphorin F (1), from the edible fungus Taiwanofungus camphoratus (Antrodia camphorata) was characterized by comprehensive spectral analysis. It displays anti-inflammatory bioactivity and is valuable for further biological studies. The present study is the first total synthesis of
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A naturally occurring enynyl-benzenoid, benzocamphorin F (1), from the edible fungus Taiwanofungus camphoratus (Antrodia camphorata) was characterized by comprehensive spectral analysis. It displays anti-inflammatory bioactivity and is valuable for further biological studies. The present study is the first total synthesis of benzocamphorin F and the developed strategy described is a more efficient procedure that allowe the large-scale production of benzocamphorin F for further research of the biological activity both in vitro and in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Green Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Species Differentiation of Chinese Mollitrichosiphum (Aphididae: Greenideinae) Driven by Geographical Isolation and Host Plant Acquirement
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10441-10460; doi:10.3390/ijms130810441
Received: 21 June 2012 / Revised: 2 August 2012 / Accepted: 3 August 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1364 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The impact of both the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and the separation of the Taiwan and Hainan Islands on the evolution of the fauna and flora in adjacent regions has been a topic of considerable interest. Mollitrichosiphum is a polyphagous insect
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The impact of both the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and the separation of the Taiwan and Hainan Islands on the evolution of the fauna and flora in adjacent regions has been a topic of considerable interest. Mollitrichosiphum is a polyphagous insect group with a wide range of host plants (14 families) and distributions restricted to Southeast Asia. Based on the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI) and Cytochrome b (Cytb) genes, the nuclear elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) gene, and the detailed distribution and host plant data, we investigated the species differentiation modes of the Chinese Mollitrichosiphum species. Phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Mollitrichosiphum. The divergence time of Mollitrichosiphum tenuicorpus (c. 11.0 mya (million years ago)), Mollitrichosiphum nandii and Mollitrichosiphum montanum (c. 10.6 mya) was within the time frame of the uplift of the QTP. Additionally, basal species mainly fed on Fagaceae, while species that fed on multiple plants diverged considerably later. Ancestral state reconstruction suggests that Fagaceae may be the first acquired host, and the acquisition of new hosts and the expansion of host range may have promoted species differentiation within this genus. Overall, it can be concluded that geographical isolation and the expansion of the host plant range may be the main factors driving species differentiation of Mollitrichosiphum. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Novel Cyclodextrin Glycosyltransferase from Alkaliphilic Amphibacillus sp. NPST-10: Purification and Properties
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10505-10522; doi:10.3390/ijms130810505
Received: 26 June 2012 / Revised: 5 August 2012 / Accepted: 10 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (859 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Screening for cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase)-producing alkaliphilic bacteria from samples collected from hyper saline soda lakes (Wadi Natrun Valley, Egypt), resulted in isolation of potent CGTase producing alkaliphilic bacterium, termed NPST-10. 16S rDNA sequence analysis identified the isolate as Amphibacillus sp. CGTase was purified
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Screening for cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase)-producing alkaliphilic bacteria from samples collected from hyper saline soda lakes (Wadi Natrun Valley, Egypt), resulted in isolation of potent CGTase producing alkaliphilic bacterium, termed NPST-10. 16S rDNA sequence analysis identified the isolate as Amphibacillus sp. CGTase was purified to homogeneity up to 22.1 fold by starch adsorption and anion exchange chromatography with a yield of 44.7%. The purified enzyme was a monomeric protein with an estimated molecular weight of 92 kDa using SDS-PAGE. Catalytic activities of the enzyme were found to be 88.8 U mg−1 protein, 20.0 U mg−1 protein and 11.0 U mg−1 protein for cyclization, coupling and hydrolytic activities, respectively. The enzyme was stable over a wide pH range from pH 5.0 to 11.0, with a maximal activity at pH 8.0. CGTase exhibited activity over a wide temperature range from 45 °C to 70 °C, with maximal activity at 50 °C and was stable at 30 °C to 55 °C for at least 1 h. Thermal stability of the purified enzyme could be significantly improved in the presence of CaCl2. Km and Vmax values were estimated using soluble starch as a substrate to be 1.7 ± 0.15 mg/mL and 100 ± 2.0 μmol/min, respectively. CGTase was significantly inhibited in the presence of Co2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Hg2+, Ba2+, Cd2+, and 2-mercaptoethanol. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of CGTase production by Amphibacillus sp. The achieved high conversion of insoluble raw corn starch into cyclodextrins (67.2%) with production of mainly β-CD (86.4%), makes Amphibacillus sp. NPST-10 desirable for the cyclodextrin production industry. Full article
Open AccessArticle Gender Related Differences in Kidney Injury Induced by Mercury
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10523-10536; doi:10.3390/ijms130810523
Received: 30 June 2012 / Revised: 7 August 2012 / Accepted: 14 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (590 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine if there are sex-related differences in the acute kidney injury induced by HgCl2 since female rats express lower levels of renal Oat1 and Oat3 (transporters involved in renal uptake of mercury) as compared with
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The aim of this study was to determine if there are sex-related differences in the acute kidney injury induced by HgCl2 since female rats express lower levels of renal Oat1 and Oat3 (transporters involved in renal uptake of mercury) as compared with males. Control males and females and Hg-treated male and female Wistar rats were employed. Animals were treated with HgCl2 (4 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intraperitoneal (i.p.)) 18 h before the experiments. HgCl2 induced renal impairment both in male and female rats. However, female rats showed a lower renal impairment than male rats. The observed increase in kidney weight/body weight ratio seen in male and female rats following HgCl2 treatment was less in the female rats. Urine volume and creatinine clearance decreased and Oat5 urinary excretion increased in both males and females, but to a lesser degree in the latter. Urinary alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and histological parameters were modified in male but not in female rats after HgCl2 administration. These results indicate that the lower Oat1 and Oat3 expression in the kidney of females restricts Hg uptake into renal cells protecting them from this metal toxicity. These gender differences in renal injury induced by mercury are striking and also indicate that Oat1 and Oat3 are among the main transporters responsible for HgCl2-induced renal injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Organ-Specific Toxicity)
Open AccessArticle Direct Observation of Protein Microcrystals in Crystallization Buffer by Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscopy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10553-10567; doi:10.3390/ijms130810553
Received: 1 June 2012 / Revised: 2 August 2012 / Accepted: 3 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (4962 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
X-ray crystallography requires high quality crystals above a given size. This requirement not only limits the proteins to be analyzed, but also reduces the speed of the structure determination. Indeed, the tertiary structures of many physiologically important proteins remain elusive because of the
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X-ray crystallography requires high quality crystals above a given size. This requirement not only limits the proteins to be analyzed, but also reduces the speed of the structure determination. Indeed, the tertiary structures of many physiologically important proteins remain elusive because of the so-called “crystallization bottleneck”. Once microcrystals have been obtained, crystallization conditions can be optimized to produce bigger and better crystals. However, the identification of microcrystals can be difficult due to the resolution limit of optical microscopy. Electron microscopy has sometimes been utilized instead, with the disadvantage that the microcrystals usually must be observed in vacuum, which precludes the usage for crystal screening. The atmospheric scanning electron microscope (ASEM) allows samples to be observed in solution. Here, we report the use of this instrument in combination with a special thin-membrane dish with a crystallization well. It was possible to observe protein crystals of lysozyme, lipase B and a histone chaperone TAF-Iβ in crystallization buffers, without the use of staining procedures. The smallest crystals observed with ASEM were a few µm in width, and ASEM can be used with non-transparent solutions. Furthermore, the growth of salt crystals could be monitored in the ASEM, and the difference in contrast between salt and protein crystals made it easy to distinguish between these two types of microcrystals. These results indicate that the ASEM could be an important new tool for the screening of protein microcrystals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Crystallography in Molecular Biology)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Development of Microsatellite Markers for the Korean Mussel, Mytilus coruscus (Mytilidae) Using Next-Generation Sequencing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10583-10593; doi:10.3390/ijms130810583
Received: 5 June 2012 / Revised: 14 August 2012 / Accepted: 16 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mytilus coruscus (family Mytilidae) is one of the most important marine shellfish species in Korea. During the past few decades, this species has become endangered due to the loss of habitats and overfishing. Despite this species’ importance, information on its genetic background is
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Mytilus coruscus (family Mytilidae) is one of the most important marine shellfish species in Korea. During the past few decades, this species has become endangered due to the loss of habitats and overfishing. Despite this species’ importance, information on its genetic background is scarce. In this study, we developed microsatellite markers for M. coruscus using next-generation sequencing. A total of 263,900 raw reads were obtained from a quarter-plate run on the 454 GS-FLX titanium platform, and 176,327 unique sequences were generated with an average length of 381 bp; 2569 (1.45%) sequences contained a minimum of five di- to tetra-nucleotide repeat motifs. Of the 51 loci screened, 46 were amplified successfully, and 22 were polymorphic among 30 individuals, with seven of trinucleotide repeats and three of tetranucleotide repeats. All loci exhibited high genetic variability, with an average of 17.32 alleles per locus, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.67 and 0.90, respectively. In addition, cross-amplification was tested for all 22 loci in another congener species, M. galloprovincialis. None of the primer pairs resulted in effective amplification, which might be due to their high mutation rates. Our work demonstrated the utility of next-generation 454 sequencing as a method for the rapid and cost-effective identification of microsatellites. The high degree of polymorphism exhibited by the 22 newly developed microsatellites will be useful in future conservation genetic studies of this species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Antisense Oligonucleotide Against Clusterin Regulates Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Invasion Through Transcriptional Regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and E-Cadherin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10594-10607; doi:10.3390/ijms130810594
Received: 21 June 2012 / Revised: 10 August 2012 / Accepted: 20 August 2012 / Published: 23 August 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (444 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Secreted clusterin (sCLU) has been shown to be overexpressed in metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue, and its overexpression in HCC cells increases cell migration and the formation of liver metastatic tumor nodules in vivo. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that
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Secreted clusterin (sCLU) has been shown to be overexpressed in metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue, and its overexpression in HCC cells increases cell migration and the formation of liver metastatic tumor nodules in vivo. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sCLU plays a role in the invasiveness of human HCC and may be associated with its metastatic spread. HCCLM3, a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, was transiently transfected with an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) against sCLU (OGX-011). HepG2 liver hepatocellular cells were transiently transfected with the pc.DNA3.1-sCLU plasmid to overexpress sCLU, and subsequently evaluated for effects on invasion and the expression of molecules involved in invasion. We observed that suppression of the sCLU gene significantly reduced the invasive capability of the highly invasive HCCLM3 cells, and vice versa in the low invasive HepG2 cell line. The results revealed that knockdown of sCLU by OGX-011 resulted in a significant increase in the expression of E-cadherin and a decrease in matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) gene transcription. Overexpression of sCLU by transfection with pc.DNA3.1-sCLU significantly decreased the expression of E-cadherin and increased MMP-2 gene transcription. These data were further verified by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis. A significant reduction in MMP-2 expression and an increase in E-cadherin expression in sCLU-knockdown HCCLM3 cells were observed, as well as a significant increase in MMP-2 expression and a decrease in E-cadherin expression in HepG2 cells overexpressing sCLU. These data indicate a role for sCLU in augmenting MMP-2 transcription and decreasing E-cadherin expression. Our data show the involvement of sCLU in human HCC invasion, and demonstrate that silencing sCLU gene expression inhibits the invasion of human HCC cells by inhibiting MMP-2 expression and promoting E-cadherin expression. Thus, OGX-011 could be an effective therapeutic agent for HCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Organ-Specific Toxicity)
Open AccessArticle Optimization of Xylanase Production from Penicillium sp.WX-Z1 by a Two-Step Statistical Strategy: Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken Experimental Design
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10630-10646; doi:10.3390/ijms130810630
Received: 6 June 2012 / Revised: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 2 August 2012 / Published: 23 August 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the study was to optimize the nutrition sources in a culture medium for the production of xylanase from Penicillium sp.WX-Z1 using Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken design. The Plackett-Burman multifactorial design was first employed to screen the important nutrient sources in
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The objective of the study was to optimize the nutrition sources in a culture medium for the production of xylanase from Penicillium sp.WX-Z1 using Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken design. The Plackett-Burman multifactorial design was first employed to screen the important nutrient sources in the medium for xylanase production by Penicillium sp.WX-Z1 and subsequent use of the response surface methodology (RSM) was further optimized for xylanase production by Box-Behnken design. The important nutrient sources in the culture medium, identified by the initial screening method of Placket-Burman, were wheat bran, yeast extract, NaNO3, MgSO4, and CaCl2. The optimal amounts (in g/L) for maximum production of xylanase were: wheat bran, 32.8; yeast extract, 1.02; NaNO3, 12.71; MgSO4, 0.96; and CaCl2, 1.04. Using this statistical experimental design, the xylanase production under optimal condition reached 46.50 U/mL and an increase in xylanase activity of 1.34-fold was obtained compared with the original medium for fermentation carried out in a 30-L bioreactor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Optimization and Immobilization)

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Open AccessReview Implication of Tumor Microenvironment in Chemoresistance: Tumor-Associated Stromal Cells Protect Tumor Cells from Cell Death
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9545-9571; doi:10.3390/ijms13089545
Received: 8 June 2012 / Revised: 13 July 2012 / Accepted: 17 July 2012 / Published: 30 July 2012
Cited by 62 | PDF Full-text (9088 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tumor development principally occurs following the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in tumor cells. These changes pave the way for the transformation of chemosensitive cells to chemoresistant ones by influencing the uptake, metabolism, or export of drugs at the cellular level. Numerous
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Tumor development principally occurs following the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in tumor cells. These changes pave the way for the transformation of chemosensitive cells to chemoresistant ones by influencing the uptake, metabolism, or export of drugs at the cellular level. Numerous reports have revealed the complexity of tumors and their microenvironment with tumor cells located within a heterogeneous population of stromal cells. These stromal cells (fibroblasts, endothelial or mesothelial cells, adipocytes or adipose tissue-derived stromal cells, immune cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells) could be involved in the chemoresistance that is acquired by tumor cells via several mechanisms: (i) cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions influencing the cancer cell sensitivity to apoptosis; (ii) local release of soluble factors promoting survival and tumor growth (crosstalk between stromal and tumor cells); (iii) direct cell-cell interactions with tumor cells (crosstalk or oncologic trogocytosis); (iv) generation of specific niches within the tumor microenvironment that facilitate the acquisition of drug resistance; or (v) conversion of the cancer cells to cancer-initiating cells or cancer stem cells. This review will focus on the implication of each member of the heterogeneous population of stromal cells in conferring resistance to cytotoxins and physiological mediators of cell death. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Programmed Cell Death and Apoptosis)
Open AccessReview Selenium Compounds, Apoptosis and Other Types of Cell Death: An Overview for Cancer Therapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9649-9672; doi:10.3390/ijms13089649
Received: 18 June 2012 / Revised: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 24 July 2012 / Published: 2 August 2012
Cited by 62 | PDF Full-text (352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element involved in different physiological functions of the human body and plays a role in cancer prevention and treatment. Induction of apoptosis is considered an important cellular event that can account for the cancer preventive effects of
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Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element involved in different physiological functions of the human body and plays a role in cancer prevention and treatment. Induction of apoptosis is considered an important cellular event that can account for the cancer preventive effects of Se. The mechanisms of Se-induced apoptosis are associated with the chemical forms of Se and their metabolism as well as the type of cancer studied. So, some selenocompounds, such as SeO2 involve the activation of caspase-3 while sodium selenite induces apoptosis in the absence of the activation of caspases. Modulation of mitochondrial functions has been reported to play a key role in the regulation of apoptosis and also to be one of the targets of Se compounds. Other mechanisms for apoptosis induction are the modulation of glutathione and reactive oxygen species levels, which may function as intracellular messengers to regulate signaling pathways, or the regulation of kinase, among others. Emerging evidence indicates the overlaps between the apoptosis and other types of cell death such as autophagy. In this review we report different processes of cell death induced by Se compounds in cancer treatment and prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Programmed Cell Death and Apoptosis)
Open AccessReview Molecular Dynamic Simulation Insights into the Normal State and Restoration of p53 Function
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9709-9740; doi:10.3390/ijms13089709
Received: 11 May 2012 / Revised: 6 July 2012 / Accepted: 11 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (625 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As a tumor suppressor protein, p53 plays a crucial role in the cell cycle and in cancer prevention. Almost 50 percent of all human malignant tumors are closely related to a deletion or mutation in p53. The activity of p53 is inhibited by
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As a tumor suppressor protein, p53 plays a crucial role in the cell cycle and in cancer prevention. Almost 50 percent of all human malignant tumors are closely related to a deletion or mutation in p53. The activity of p53 is inhibited by over-active celluar antagonists, especially by the over-expression of the negative regulators MDM2 and MDMX. Protein-protein interactions, or post-translational modifications of the C-terminal negative regulatory domain of p53, also regulate its tumor suppressor activity. Restoration of p53 function through peptide and small molecular inhibitors has become a promising strategy for novel anti-cancer drug design and development. Molecular dynamics simulations have been extensively applied to investigate the conformation changes of p53 induced by protein-protein interactions and protein-ligand interactions, including peptide and small molecular inhibitors. This review focuses on the latest MD simulation research, to provide an overview of the current understanding of interactions between p53 and its partners at an atomic level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomolecular Simulation)
Open AccessReview Molecular Mechanisms of Aging and Immune System Regulation in Drosophila
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9826-9844; doi:10.3390/ijms13089826
Received: 8 July 2012 / Revised: 25 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 7 August 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aging is a complex process that involves the accumulation of deleterious changes resulting in overall decline in several vital functions, leading to the progressive deterioration in physiological condition of the organism and eventually causing disease and death. The immune system is the most
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Aging is a complex process that involves the accumulation of deleterious changes resulting in overall decline in several vital functions, leading to the progressive deterioration in physiological condition of the organism and eventually causing disease and death. The immune system is the most important host-defense mechanism in humans and is also highly conserved in insects. Extensive research in vertebrates has concluded that aging of the immune function results in increased susceptibility to infectious disease and chronic inflammation. Over the years, interest has grown in studying the molecular interaction between aging and the immune response to pathogenic infections. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model system for dissecting the genetic and genomic basis of important biological processes, such as aging and the innate immune system, and deciphering parallel mechanisms in vertebrate animals. Here, we review the recent advances in the identification of key players modulating the relationship between molecular aging networks and immune signal transduction pathways in the fly. Understanding the details of the molecular events involved in aging and immune system regulation will potentially lead to the development of strategies for decreasing the impact of age-related diseases, thus improving human health and life span. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Immunology)
Open AccessReview Molecular Mechanisms of Epigenetic Variation in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9900-9922; doi:10.3390/ijms13089900
Received: 30 May 2012 / Revised: 27 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 8 August 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (630 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Natural variation is defined as the phenotypic variation caused by spontaneous mutations. In general, mutations are associated with changes of nucleotide sequence, and many mutations in genes that can cause changes in plant development have been identified. Epigenetic change, which does not involve
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Natural variation is defined as the phenotypic variation caused by spontaneous mutations. In general, mutations are associated with changes of nucleotide sequence, and many mutations in genes that can cause changes in plant development have been identified. Epigenetic change, which does not involve alteration to the nucleotide sequence, can also cause changes in gene activity by changing the structure of chromatin through DNA methylation or histone modifications. Now there is evidence based on induced or spontaneous mutants that epigenetic changes can cause altering plant phenotypes. Epigenetic changes have occurred frequently in plants, and some are heritable or metastable causing variation in epigenetic status within or between species. Therefore, heritable epigenetic variation as well as genetic variation has the potential to drive natural variation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessReview Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Correlates of Altered Subunit Stoichiometry in Cys-Loop Receptors, Exemplified by Nicotinic α4β2
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10022-10040; doi:10.3390/ijms130810022
Received: 30 May 2012 / Revised: 2 July 2012 / Accepted: 5 July 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We provide a theory for employing Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements to determine altered heteropentameric ion channel stoichiometries in intracellular compartments of living cells. We simulate FRET within nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) whose α4 and β2 subunits contain acceptor and donor fluorescent protein
[...] Read more.
We provide a theory for employing Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements to determine altered heteropentameric ion channel stoichiometries in intracellular compartments of living cells. We simulate FRET within nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) whose α4 and β2 subunits contain acceptor and donor fluorescent protein moieties, respectively, within the cytoplasmic loops. We predict FRET and normalized FRET (NFRET) for the two predominant stoichiometries, (α4)3(β2)2 vs. (α4)2(β2)3. Studying the ratio between FRET or NFRET for the two stoichiometries, minimizes distortions due to various photophysical uncertainties. Within a range of assumptions concerning the distance between fluorophores, deviations from plane pentameric geometry, and other asymmetries, the predicted FRET and NFRET for (α4)3(β2)2 exceeds that of (α4)2(β2)3. The simulations account for published data on transfected Neuro2a cells in which α4β2 stoichiometries were manipulated by varying fluorescent subunit cDNA ratios: NFRET decreased monotonically from (α4)3(β2)2 stoichiometry to mostly (α4)2(β2)3. The simulations also account for previous macroscopic and single-channel observations that pharmacological chaperoning by nicotine and cytisine increase the (α4)2(β2)3 and (α4)3(β2)2 populations, respectively. We also analyze sources of variability. NFRET-based monitoring of changes in subunit stoichiometry can contribute usefully to studies on Cys-loop receptors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET))
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Open AccessReview Blood Glutamate Scavenging: Insight into Neuroprotection
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10041-10066; doi:10.3390/ijms130810041
Received: 4 June 2012 / Revised: 18 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Brain insults are characterized by a multitude of complex processes, of which glutamate release plays a major role. Deleterious excess of glutamate in the brain’s extracellular fluids stimulates glutamate receptors, which in turn lead to cell swelling, apoptosis, and neuronal death. These exacerbate
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Brain insults are characterized by a multitude of complex processes, of which glutamate release plays a major role. Deleterious excess of glutamate in the brain’s extracellular fluids stimulates glutamate receptors, which in turn lead to cell swelling, apoptosis, and neuronal death. These exacerbate neurological outcome. Approaches aimed at antagonizing the astrocytic and glial glutamate receptors have failed to demonstrate clinical benefit. Alternatively, eliminating excess glutamate from brain interstitial fluids by making use of the naturally occurring brain-to-blood glutamate efflux has been shown to be effective in various animal studies. This is facilitated by gradient driven transport across brain capillary endothelial glutamate transporters. Blood glutamate scavengers enhance this naturally occurring mechanism by reducing the blood glutamate concentration, thus increasing the rate at which excess glutamate is cleared. Blood glutamate scavenging is achieved by several mechanisms including: catalyzation of the enzymatic process involved in glutamate metabolism, redistribution of glutamate into tissue, and acute stress response. Regardless of the mechanism involved, decreased blood glutamate concentration is associated with improved neurological outcome. This review focuses on the physiological, mechanistic and clinical roles of blood glutamate scavenging, particularly in the context of acute and chronic CNS injury. We discuss the details of brain-to-blood glutamate efflux, auto-regulation mechanisms of blood glutamate, natural and exogenous blood glutamate scavenging systems, and redistribution of glutamate. We then propose different applied methodologies to reduce blood and brain glutamate concentrations and discuss the neuroprotective role of blood glutamate scavenging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessReview Epigenetic Effects of Environmental Chemicals Bisphenol A and Phthalates
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10143-10153; doi:10.3390/ijms130810143
Received: 6 April 2012 / Revised: 18 July 2012 / Accepted: 8 August 2012 / Published: 15 August 2012
Cited by 87 | PDF Full-text (133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The epigenetic effects on DNA methylation, histone modification, and expression of non-coding RNAs (including microRNAs) of environmental chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates have expanded our understanding of the etiology of human complex diseases such as cancers and diabetes. Multiple lines
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The epigenetic effects on DNA methylation, histone modification, and expression of non-coding RNAs (including microRNAs) of environmental chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates have expanded our understanding of the etiology of human complex diseases such as cancers and diabetes. Multiple lines of evidence from in vitro and in vivo models have established that epigenetic modifications caused by in utero exposure to environmental toxicants can induce alterations in gene expression that may persist throughout life. Epigenetics is an important mechanism in the ability of environmental chemicals to influence health and disease, and BPA and phthalates are epigenetically toxic. The epigenetic effect of BPA was clearly demonstrated in viable yellow mice by decreasing CpG methylation upstream of the Agouti gene, and the hypomethylating effect of BPA was prevented by maternal dietary supplementation with a methyl donor like folic acid or the phytoestrogen genistein. Histone H3 was found to be trimethylated at lysine 27 by BPA effect on EZH2 in a human breast cancer cell line and mice. BPA exposure of human placental cell lines has been shown to alter microRNA expression levels, and specifically, miR-146a was strongly induced by BPA treatment. In human breast cancer MCF7 cells, treatment with the phthalate BBP led to demethylation of estrogen receptor (ESR1) promoter-associated CpG islands, indicating that altered ESR1 mRNA expression by BBP is due to aberrant DNA methylation. Maternal exposure to phthalate DEHP was also shown to increase DNA methylation and expression levels of DNA methyltransferases in mouse testis. Further, some epigenetic effects of BPA and phthalates in female rats were found to be transgenerational. Finally, the available new technologies for global analysis of epigenetic alterations will provide insight into the extent and patterns of alterations between human normal and diseased tissues. In vitro models such as human embryonic stem cells may be extremely useful in bettering the understanding of epigenetic effects on human development, health and disease, because the formation of embryoid bodies in vitro is very similar to the early stage of embryogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
Open AccessReview Biogenesis and Mechanism of Action of Small Non-Coding RNAs: Insights from the Point of View of Structural Biology
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10268-10295; doi:10.3390/ijms130810268
Received: 30 May 2012 / Revised: 17 July 2012 / Accepted: 2 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3289 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Non-coding RNAs are dominant in the genomic output of the higher organisms being not simply occasional transcripts with idiosyncratic functions, but constituting an extensive regulatory network. Among all the species of non-coding RNAs, small non-coding RNAs (miRNAs, siRNAs and piRNAs) have been shown
[...] Read more.
Non-coding RNAs are dominant in the genomic output of the higher organisms being not simply occasional transcripts with idiosyncratic functions, but constituting an extensive regulatory network. Among all the species of non-coding RNAs, small non-coding RNAs (miRNAs, siRNAs and piRNAs) have been shown to be in the core of the regulatory machinery of all the genomic output in eukaryotic cells. Small non-coding RNAs are produced by several pathways containing specialized enzymes that process RNA transcripts. The mechanism of action of these molecules is also ensured by a group of effector proteins that are commonly engaged within high molecular weight protein-RNA complexes. In the last decade, the contribution of structural biology has been essential to the dissection of the molecular mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis and function of small non-coding RNAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Crystallography in Molecular Biology)
Open AccessReview Molecular Tools for Exploring Polyploid Genomes in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10316-10335; doi:10.3390/ijms130810316
Received: 27 June 2012 / Revised: 3 August 2012 / Accepted: 6 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (354 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyploidy is a very common phenomenon in the plant kingdom, where even diploid species are often described as paleopolyploids. The polyploid condition may bring about several advantages compared to the diploid state. Polyploids often show phenotypes that are not present in their diploid
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Polyploidy is a very common phenomenon in the plant kingdom, where even diploid species are often described as paleopolyploids. The polyploid condition may bring about several advantages compared to the diploid state. Polyploids often show phenotypes that are not present in their diploid progenitors or exceed the range of the contributing species. Some of these traits may play a role in heterosis or could favor adaptation to new ecological niches. Advances in genomics and sequencing technology may create unprecedented opportunities for discovering and monitoring the molecular effects of polyploidization. Through this review, we provide an overview of technologies and strategies that may allow an in-depth analysis of polyploid genomes. After introducing some basic aspects on the origin and genetics of polyploids, we highlight the main tools available for genome and gene expression analysis and summarize major findings. In the last part of this review, the implications of next generation sequencing are briefly discussed. The accumulation of knowledge on polyploid formation, maintenance, and divergence at whole-genome and subgenome levels will not only help plant biologists to understand how plants have evolved and diversified, but also assist plant breeders in designing new strategies for crop improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Plant Biology)
Open AccessReview Macromolecule-Assisted de novo Protein Folding
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10368-10386; doi:10.3390/ijms130810368
Received: 26 July 2012 / Revised: 14 August 2012 / Accepted: 17 August 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the processes of protein synthesis and folding, newly synthesized polypeptides are tightly connected to the macromolecules, such as ribosomes, lipid bilayers, or cotranslationally folded domains in multidomain proteins, representing a hallmark of de novo protein folding environments in vivo. Such linkage
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In the processes of protein synthesis and folding, newly synthesized polypeptides are tightly connected to the macromolecules, such as ribosomes, lipid bilayers, or cotranslationally folded domains in multidomain proteins, representing a hallmark of de novo protein folding environments in vivo. Such linkage effects on the aggregation of endogenous polypeptides have been largely neglected, although all these macromolecules have been known to effectively and robustly solubilize their linked heterologous proteins in fusion or display technology. Thus, their roles in the aggregation of linked endogenous polypeptides need to be elucidated and incorporated into the mechanisms of de novo protein folding in vivo. In the classic hydrophobic interaction-based stabilizing mechanism underlying the molecular chaperone-assisted protein folding, it has been assumed that the macromolecules connected through a simple linkage without hydrophobic interactions and conformational changes would make no effect on the aggregation of their linked polypeptide chains. However, an increasing line of evidence indicates that the intrinsic properties of soluble macromolecules, especially their surface charges and excluded volume, could be important and universal factors for stabilizing their linked polypeptides against aggregation. Taken together, these macromolecules could act as folding helpers by keeping their linked nascent chains in a folding-competent state. The folding assistance provided by these macromolecules in the linkage context would give new insights into de novo protein folding inside the cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessReview Transforming Growth Factor-Beta-Induced Protein (TGFBI)/(βig-H3): A Matrix Protein with Dual Functions in Ovarian Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10461-10477; doi:10.3390/ijms130810461
Received: 30 June 2012 / Revised: 3 August 2012 / Accepted: 16 August 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (3264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBI, also known as βig-H3 and keratoepithelin) is an extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in a wide range of physiological and pathological conditions including diabetes, corneal dystrophy and tumorigenesis. Many reports indicate that βig-H3 functions as a
[...] Read more.
Transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBI, also known as βig-H3 and keratoepithelin) is an extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in a wide range of physiological and pathological conditions including diabetes, corneal dystrophy and tumorigenesis. Many reports indicate that βig-H3 functions as a tumor suppressor. Loss of βig-H3 expression has been described in several cancers including ovarian cancer and promoter hypermethylation has been identified as an important mechanism for the silencing of the TGFBI gene. Our recent findings that βig-H3 is down-regulated in ovarian cancer and that high concentrations of βig-H3 can induce ovarian cancer cell death support a tumor suppressor role. However, there is also convincing data in the literature reporting a tumor-promoting role for βig-H3. We have shown βig-H3 to be abundantly expressed by peritoneal cells and increase the metastatic potential of ovarian cancer cells by promoting cell motility, invasion, and adhesion to peritoneal cells. Our findings suggest that βig-H3 has dual functions and can act both as a tumor suppressor or tumor promoter depending on the tumor microenvironment. This article reviews the current understanding of βig-H3 function in cancer cells with particular focus on ovarian cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Molecules in Ovarian Cancer 2012)
Open AccessReview The Role of Free Radicals in the Aging Brain and Parkinson’s Disease: Convergence and Parallelism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10478-10504; doi:10.3390/ijms130810478
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 8 August 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
Cited by 53 | PDF Full-text (759 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Free radical production and their targeted action on biomolecules have roles in aging and age-related disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). There is an age-associated increase in oxidative damage to the brain, and aging is considered a risk factor for PD. Dopaminergic neurons
[...] Read more.
Free radical production and their targeted action on biomolecules have roles in aging and age-related disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). There is an age-associated increase in oxidative damage to the brain, and aging is considered a risk factor for PD. Dopaminergic neurons show linear fallout of 5–10% per decade with aging; however, the rate and intensity of neuronal loss in patients with PD is more marked than that of aging. Here, we enumerate the common link between aging and PD at the cellular level with special reference to oxidative damage caused by free radicals. Oxidative damage includes mitochondrial dysfunction, dopamine auto-oxidation, α-synuclein aggregation, glial cell activation, alterations in calcium signaling, and excess free iron. Moreover, neurons encounter more oxidative stress as a counteracting mechanism with advancing age does not function properly. Alterations in transcriptional activity of various pathways, including nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, mitogen activated protein kinase, nuclear factor kappa B, and reduced activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione with aging might be correlated with the increased incidence of PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine)
Open AccessReview Characterization of Aptamer-Protein Complexes by X-ray Crystallography and Alternative Approaches
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10537-10552; doi:10.3390/ijms130810537
Received: 31 May 2012 / Revised: 9 August 2012 / Accepted: 17 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aptamers are oligonucleotide ligands, either RNA or ssDNA, selected for high-affinity binding to molecular targets, such as small organic molecules, proteins or whole microorganisms. While reports of new aptamers are numerous, characterization of their specific interaction is often restricted to the affinity of
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Aptamers are oligonucleotide ligands, either RNA or ssDNA, selected for high-affinity binding to molecular targets, such as small organic molecules, proteins or whole microorganisms. While reports of new aptamers are numerous, characterization of their specific interaction is often restricted to the affinity of binding (KD). Over the years, crystal structures of aptamer-protein complexes have only scarcely become available. Here we describe some relevant technical issues about the process of crystallizing aptamer-protein complexes and highlight some biochemical details on the molecular basis of selected aptamer-protein interactions. In addition, alternative experimental and computational approaches are discussed to study aptamer-protein interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Crystallography in Molecular Biology)
Open AccessReview Deciphering the Molecular Nature of Ovarian Cancer Biomarker CA125
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10568-10582; doi:10.3390/ijms130810568
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 3 July 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1013 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ovarian cancer biomarker CA125 has been extensively investigated over the last 30 years. The knowledge about the exact molecular nature of this protein, however, remains fragmented. This review provides an overview of the structural research regarding CA125, and presents an orthogonal verification
[...] Read more.
The ovarian cancer biomarker CA125 has been extensively investigated over the last 30 years. The knowledge about the exact molecular nature of this protein, however, remains fragmented. This review provides an overview of the structural research regarding CA125, and presents an orthogonal verification method to confirm the identity of this molecule. The need for independent identification of CA125 is exemplified by several reports where mutually exclusive data concerning the existence of isoforms and the glycan moieties is presented. Mass spectrometry can overcome the pitfalls of a single detection/identification method such as antibody probing. Independent verification of CA125 identity in characterization studies will help establish a refined model of its molecular structure that will promote the development of new approaches for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of ovarian cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Molecules in Ovarian Cancer 2012)
Open AccessReview Recent Advances on the Neuroprotective Potential of Antioxidants in Experimental Models of Parkinson’s Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10608-10629; doi:10.3390/ijms130810608
Received: 26 July 2012 / Revised: 13 August 2012 / Accepted: 14 August 2012 / Published: 23 August 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD), a neurodegenerative movement disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) is characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta region of the midbrain. Although the etiology of PD is not completely understood and is
[...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD), a neurodegenerative movement disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) is characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta region of the midbrain. Although the etiology of PD is not completely understood and is believed to be multifactorial, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are widely considered major consequences, which provide important clues to the disease mechanisms. Studies have explored the role of free radicals and oxidative stress that contributes to the cascade of events leading to dopamine cell degeneration in PD. In general, in-built protective mechanisms consisting of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the CNS play decisive roles in preventing neuronal cell loss due to free radicals. But the ability to produce these antioxidants decreases with aging. Therefore, antioxidant therapy alone or in combination with current treatment methods may represent an attractive strategy for treating or preventing the neurodegeneration seen in PD. Here we summarize the recent discoveries of potential antioxidant compounds for modulating free radical mediated oxidative stress leading to neurotoxicity in PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2012)
Open AccessReview Molecular Mechanisms of Oligodendrocyte Injury in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10647-10659; doi:10.3390/ijms130810647
Received: 16 July 2012 / Revised: 20 August 2012 / Accepted: 20 August 2012 / Published: 23 August 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (322 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New evidence has emerged over the last decade indicating that oligodendrocyte injury in multiple sclerosis (MS) is not a single unified phenomenon but rather a spectrum of processes ranging from massive immune destruction to a subtle cell death in the absence of significant
[...] Read more.
New evidence has emerged over the last decade indicating that oligodendrocyte injury in multiple sclerosis (MS) is not a single unified phenomenon but rather a spectrum of processes ranging from massive immune destruction to a subtle cell death in the absence of significant inflammation. Experimentally, protection of oligodendrocytes against inflammatory injury results in protection against experimental autoimmune encephalitis, the animal model of multiple sclerosis. In this review, we will discuss the molecular mechanisms regulating oligodendrocyte injury and inflammatory demyelination. We draw attention to the injurious role of IFN-γ signaling in oligodendrocytes and the pro-inflammatory effect of their death. In conclusion, studying the molecular mechanisms of oligodendrocyte injury is likely to provide new perspective on the pathogenesis of MS and a rationale for cell protective therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Research of Multiple Sclerosis)

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Open AccessShort Note Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers in Brown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9527-9533; doi:10.3390/ijms13089527
Received: 15 May 2012 / Revised: 22 June 2012 / Accepted: 16 July 2012 / Published: 27 July 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (78 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) is an economically important pest on rice. In this study, 30 polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from N. lugens genomic libraries using the method of Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequence Containing Repeats (FIASCO). Polymorphism
[...] Read more.
Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) is an economically important pest on rice. In this study, 30 polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from N. lugens genomic libraries using the method of Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequence Containing Repeats (FIASCO). Polymorphism of each locus was detected in 48 individuals from two natural populations. These microsatellite loci revealed 2 to 18 alleles, and the expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.042 to 0.937 and from 0.042 to 0.958, respectively. These markers will be useful for the future study of this agricultural pest in population genetics and molecular genetics. Full article
Open AccessShort Note Isolation and Characterization of 46 Novel Polymorphic EST-Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) Markers in Two Sinipercine Fishes (Siniperca) and Cross-Species Amplification
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9534-9544; doi:10.3390/ijms13089534
Received: 9 July 2012 / Revised: 24 July 2012 / Accepted: 24 July 2012 / Published: 30 July 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the development of next generation sequencing technologies, transcriptome level sequence collections are emerging as prominent resources for the discovery of gene-based molecular markers. In this study, we described the isolation and characterization of 46 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci for Siniperca chuatsi and
[...] Read more.
With the development of next generation sequencing technologies, transcriptome level sequence collections are emerging as prominent resources for the discovery of gene-based molecular markers. In this study, we described the isolation and characterization of 46 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci for Siniperca chuatsi and Siniperca scherzeri from the transcriptome of their F1 interspecies hybrids. Forty-three of these loci were polymorphic in S. chuatsi, and 20 were polymorphic in S. scherzeri. In S. chuatsi, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 8, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.13 to 1.00 and from 0.33 to 0.85, respectively. In S. scherzeri, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 9, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.19 to 1.00 and from 0.28 to 0.88, respectively. We also evaluated the cross-amplification of 46 polymorphic loci in four species of sinipercine fishes: Siniperca kneri, Siniperca undulata, Siniperca obscura, and Coreoperca whiteheadi. The interspecies cross-amplification rate was very high, totaling 94% of the 184 locus/taxon combinations tested. These markers will be a valuable resource for population genetic studies in sinipercine fishes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)

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