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Neuroprotective Effects of Germinated Brown Rice against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Cell Death in Human SH-SY5Y Cells
Nutricosmeceuticals and Nutrigenomics Programme, Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 June 2012; in revised form: 13 July 2012 / Accepted: 19 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Abstract: The neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of germinated brown rice (GBR), brown rice (BR) and commercially available γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) against cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been investigated. Results show that GBR suppressed H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, GBR reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and prevented phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation in SH-SY5Y cells, key features of apoptosis, and subsequent cell death. GBR exhibited better neuroprotective and antioxidative activities as compared to BR and GABA. These results indicate that GBR possesses high antioxidative activities and suppressed cell death in SH-SY5Y cells by blocking the cell cycle re-entry and apoptotic mechanisms. Therefore, GBR could be developed as a value added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis.
Keywords: germinated brown rice; γ-aminobutyric acid; hydrogen peroxide; neuroprotective; SH-SY5Y cell death
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MDPI and ACS Style
Ismail, N.; Ismail, M.; Farhana Fathy, S.; Asma Musa, S.N.; Umar Imam, M.; Foo, J.B.; Iqbal, S. Neuroprotective Effects of Germinated Brown Rice against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Cell Death in Human SH-SY5Y Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 9692-9708.
Ismail N, Ismail M, Farhana Fathy S, Asma Musa SN, Umar Imam M, Foo JB, Iqbal S. Neuroprotective Effects of Germinated Brown Rice against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Cell Death in Human SH-SY5Y Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(8):9692-9708.
Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah; Farhana Fathy, Siti; Asma Musa, Siti Nor; Umar Imam, Mustapha; Foo, Jhi Biau; Iqbal, Shahid. 2012. "Neuroprotective Effects of Germinated Brown Rice against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Cell Death in Human SH-SY5Y Cells." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 8: 9692-9708.