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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9447-9459; doi:10.3390/ijms13089447
Article

Pre-Ischemic Treadmill Training for Prevention of Ischemic Brain Injury via Regulation of Glutamate and Its Transporter GLT-1

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Received: 10 May 2012; in revised form: 14 July 2012 / Accepted: 19 July 2012 / Published: 26 July 2012
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Abstract: Pre-ischemic treadmill training exerts cerebral protection in the prevention of cerebral ischemia by alleviating neurotoxicity induced by excessive glutamate release following ischemic stroke. However, the underlying mechanism of this process remains unclear. Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury was observed in a rat model after 2 weeks of pre-ischemic treadmill training. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected using the microdialysis sampling method, and the concentration of glutamate was determined every 40 min from the beginning of ischemia to 4 h after reperfusion with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescence detection. At 3, 12, 24, and 48 h after ischemia, the expression of the glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) protein in brain tissues was determined by Western blot respectively. The effect of pre-ischemic treadmill training on glutamate concentration and GLT-1 expression after cerebral ischemia in rats along with changes in neurobehavioral score and cerebral infarct volume after 24 h ischemia yields critical information necessary to understand the protection mechanism exhibited by pre-ischemic treadmill training. The results demonstrated that pre-ischemic treadmill training up-regulates GLT-1 expression, decreases extracellular glutamate concentration, reduces cerebral infarct volume, and improves neurobehavioral score. Pre-ischemic treadmill training is likely to induce neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia by regulating GLT-1 expression, which results in re-uptake of excessive glutamate.
Keywords: glutamate; glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1); pre-ischemic treadmill training; ischemia; neuroprotection glutamate; glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1); pre-ischemic treadmill training; ischemia; neuroprotection
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, X.; He, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Wu, Y.; Hu, Y.; Wang, X.; Li, M.; Wu, Z.; Guo, Z.; Guo, J.; Jia, J. Pre-Ischemic Treadmill Training for Prevention of Ischemic Brain Injury via Regulation of Glutamate and Its Transporter GLT-1. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 9447-9459.

AMA Style

Yang X, He Z, Zhang Q, Wu Y, Hu Y, Wang X, Li M, Wu Z, Guo Z, Guo J, Jia J. Pre-Ischemic Treadmill Training for Prevention of Ischemic Brain Injury via Regulation of Glutamate and Its Transporter GLT-1. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(8):9447-9459.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Xiaojiao; He, Zhijie; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Yi; Hu, Yongshan; Wang, Xiaolou; Li, Mingfen; Wu, Zhiyuan; Guo, Zhenzhen; Guo, Jingchun; Jia, Jie. 2012. "Pre-Ischemic Treadmill Training for Prevention of Ischemic Brain Injury via Regulation of Glutamate and Its Transporter GLT-1." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 8: 9447-9459.


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