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The Immunomodulatory and Neuroprotective Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE): A Model of Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10647-10659; doi:10.3390/ijms130810647
Review

Molecular Mechanisms of Oligodendrocyte Injury in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

 and *
Received: 16 July 2012; in revised form: 20 August 2012 / Accepted: 20 August 2012 / Published: 23 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Research of Multiple Sclerosis)
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Abstract: New evidence has emerged over the last decade indicating that oligodendrocyte injury in multiple sclerosis (MS) is not a single unified phenomenon but rather a spectrum of processes ranging from massive immune destruction to a subtle cell death in the absence of significant inflammation. Experimentally, protection of oligodendrocytes against inflammatory injury results in protection against experimental autoimmune encephalitis, the animal model of multiple sclerosis. In this review, we will discuss the molecular mechanisms regulating oligodendrocyte injury and inflammatory demyelination. We draw attention to the injurious role of IFN-γ signaling in oligodendrocytes and the pro-inflammatory effect of their death. In conclusion, studying the molecular mechanisms of oligodendrocyte injury is likely to provide new perspective on the pathogenesis of MS and a rationale for cell protective therapies.
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; pathology; oligodendrocytes; cell signaling; interferon regulatory factor 1; Caspase 1 multiple sclerosis; pathology; oligodendrocytes; cell signaling; interferon regulatory factor 1; Caspase 1
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Patel, J.; Balabanov, R. Molecular Mechanisms of Oligodendrocyte Injury in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 10647-10659.

AMA Style

Patel J, Balabanov R. Molecular Mechanisms of Oligodendrocyte Injury in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(8):10647-10659.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Patel, Jilpa; Balabanov, Roumen. 2012. "Molecular Mechanisms of Oligodendrocyte Injury in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 8: 10647-10659.


Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert