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New Biofuel Integrating Glycerol into Its Composition Through the Use of Covalent Immobilized Pig Pancreatic Lipase
Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, Ed. Marie Curie, 14014, Córdoba, Spain
Seneca Green Catalyst S.L., Campus de Rabanales, 14014, Córdoba, Spain
Crystallographic Studies Laboratory, Andalusian Institute of Earth Sciences, CSIC, Avda. Las Palmeras n°4, 18100, Armilla, Granada, Spain
Department of Microbiology, University of Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Ed. Marie Curie, 14014, Córdoba, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 July 2012; in revised form: 26 July 2012 / Accepted: 2 August 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Abstract: By using 1,3-specific Pig Pancreatic lipase (EC 22.214.171.124 or PPL), covalently immobilized on AlPO4/Sepiolite support as biocatalyst, a new second-generation biodiesel was obtained in the transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with ethanol and other alcohols of low molecular weight. The resulting biofuel is composed of fatty acid ethyl esters and monoglycerides (FAEE/MG) blended in a molar relation 2/1. This novel product, which integrates glycerol as monoacylglycerols (MG) into the biofuel composition, has similar physicochemical properties compared to those of conventional biodiesel and also avoids the removal step of this by-product. The biocatalyst was found to be strongly fixed to the inorganic support (75%). Nevertheless, the efficiency of the immobilized enzyme was reduced to half (49.1%) compared to that of the free PPL. The immobilized enzyme showed a remarkable stability as well as a great reusability (more than 40 successive reuses) without a significant loss of its initial catalytic activity. Immobilized and free enzymes exhibited different reaction mechanisms, according to the different results in the Arrhenius parameters (Ln A and Ea). However, the use of supported PPL was found to be very suitable for the repetitive production of biofuel due to its facile recyclability from the reaction mixture.
Keywords: biofuels; sunflower oil transesterification; covalent immobilization; pig pancreatic lipase (PPL); Sepiolite; amorphous AlPO4; monoglyceride
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MDPI and ACS Style
Luna, D.; Posadillo, A.; Caballero, V.; Verdugo, C.; Bautista, F.M.; Romero, A.A.; Sancho, E.D.; Luna, C.; Calero, J. New Biofuel Integrating Glycerol into Its Composition Through the Use of Covalent Immobilized Pig Pancreatic Lipase. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 10091-10112.
Luna D, Posadillo A, Caballero V, Verdugo C, Bautista FM, Romero AA, Sancho ED, Luna C, Calero J. New Biofuel Integrating Glycerol into Its Composition Through the Use of Covalent Immobilized Pig Pancreatic Lipase. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(8):10091-10112.
Luna, Diego; Posadillo, Alejandro; Caballero, Verónica; Verdugo, Cristóbal; Bautista, Felipa M.; Romero, Antonio A.; Sancho, Enrique D.; Luna, Carlos; Calero, Juan. 2012. "New Biofuel Integrating Glycerol into Its Composition Through the Use of Covalent Immobilized Pig Pancreatic Lipase." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 8: 10091-10112.