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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10091-10112; doi:10.3390/ijms130810091
Article

New Biofuel Integrating Glycerol into Its Composition Through the Use of Covalent Immobilized Pig Pancreatic Lipase

1,* , 2
, 1
, 3
, 1
, 1
, 4
, 1
 and 1
1 Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, Ed. Marie Curie, 14014, Córdoba, Spain 2 Seneca Green Catalyst S.L., Campus de Rabanales, 14014, Córdoba, Spain 3 Crystallographic Studies Laboratory, Andalusian Institute of Earth Sciences, CSIC, Avda. Las Palmeras n°4, 18100, Armilla, Granada, Spain 4 Department of Microbiology, University of Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Ed. Marie Curie, 14014, Córdoba, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 July 2012 / Revised: 26 July 2012 / Accepted: 2 August 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Optimization and Immobilization)
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Abstract

By using 1,3-specific Pig Pancreatic lipase (EC 3.1.1.3 or PPL), covalently immobilized on AlPO4/Sepiolite support as biocatalyst, a new second-generation biodiesel was obtained in the transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with ethanol and other alcohols of low molecular weight. The resulting biofuel is composed of fatty acid ethyl esters and monoglycerides (FAEE/MG) blended in a molar relation 2/1. This novel product, which integrates glycerol as monoacylglycerols (MG) into the biofuel composition, has similar physicochemical properties compared to those of conventional biodiesel and also avoids the removal step of this by-product. The biocatalyst was found to be strongly fixed to the inorganic support (75%). Nevertheless, the efficiency of the immobilized enzyme was reduced to half (49.1%) compared to that of the free PPL. The immobilized enzyme showed a remarkable stability as well as a great reusability (more than 40 successive reuses) without a significant loss of its initial catalytic activity. Immobilized and free enzymes exhibited different reaction mechanisms, according to the different results in the Arrhenius parameters (Ln A and Ea). However, the use of supported PPL was found to be very suitable for the repetitive production of biofuel due to its facile recyclability from the reaction mixture.
Keywords: biofuels; sunflower oil transesterification; covalent immobilization; pig pancreatic lipase (PPL); Sepiolite; amorphous AlPO4; monoglyceride biofuels; sunflower oil transesterification; covalent immobilization; pig pancreatic lipase (PPL); Sepiolite; amorphous AlPO4; monoglyceride
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Luna, D.; Posadillo, A.; Caballero, V.; Verdugo, C.; Bautista, F.M.; Romero, A.A.; Sancho, E.D.; Luna, C.; Calero, J. New Biofuel Integrating Glycerol into Its Composition Through the Use of Covalent Immobilized Pig Pancreatic Lipase. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 10091-10112.

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