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Bacterial Motility Measured by a Miniature Chamber for High-Pressure Microscopy
The Hakubi Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Ushinomiya-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8302, Japan
Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (WPI-iCeMS), Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 June 2012; in revised form: 3 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 24 July 2012
Abstract: Hydrostatic pressure is one of the physical stimuli that characterize the environment of living matter. Many microorganisms thrive under high pressure and may even physically or geochemically require this extreme environmental condition. In contrast, application of pressure is detrimental to most life on Earth; especially to living organisms under ambient pressure conditions. To study the mechanism of how living things adapt to high-pressure conditions, it is necessary to monitor directly the organism of interest under various pressure conditions. Here, we report a miniature chamber for high-pressure microscopy. The chamber was equipped with a built-in separator, in which water pressure was properly transduced to that of the sample solution. The apparatus developed could apply pressure up to 150 MPa, and enabled us to acquire bright-field and epifluorescence images at various pressures and temperatures. We demonstrated that the application of pressure acted directly and reversibly on the swimming motility of Escherichia coli cells. The present technique should be applicable to a wide range of dynamic biological processes that depend on applied pressures.
Keywords: high-pressure microscopy; bacterial motility; flagellar motor
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Nishiyama, M.; Kojima, S. Bacterial Motility Measured by a Miniature Chamber for High-Pressure Microscopy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 9225-9239.
Nishiyama M, Kojima S. Bacterial Motility Measured by a Miniature Chamber for High-Pressure Microscopy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(7):9225-9239.
Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Kojima, Seiji. 2012. "Bacterial Motility Measured by a Miniature Chamber for High-Pressure Microscopy." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 7: 9225-9239.