Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(6), 7496-7507; doi:10.3390/ijms13067496
Article

Simulated Gastrointestinal pH Condition Improves Antioxidant Properties of Wheat and Rice Flours

1 Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia 2 Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 April 2012; in revised form: 31 May 2012 / Accepted: 1 June 2012 / Published: 18 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant properties of wheat and rice flours under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition. After subjecting the wheat and rice flour slurries to simulated gastrointestinal pH condition, both slurries were centrifuged to obtain the crude phenolic extracts for further analyses. Extraction yield, total contents of phenolic and flavonoids were determined as such (untreated) and under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition (treated). 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS•+) scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) and iron chelating activity assays were employed for the determination of antioxidant activity of the tested samples. In almost all of the assays performed, significant improvements in antioxidant properties (p < 0.05) were observed in both flours after treatment, suggesting that wheat and rice flours contain considerably heavy amounts of bound phenolics, and that their antioxidant properties might be improved under gastrointestinal digestive conditions.
Keywords: wheat flour; rice flour; antioxidant activity; phenolic contents; simulated gastrointestinal pH

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chan, K.W.; Khong, N.M.H.; Iqbal, S.; Ismail, M. Simulated Gastrointestinal pH Condition Improves Antioxidant Properties of Wheat and Rice Flours. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 7496-7507.

AMA Style

Chan KW, Khong NMH, Iqbal S, Ismail M. Simulated Gastrointestinal pH Condition Improves Antioxidant Properties of Wheat and Rice Flours. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(6):7496-7507.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chan, Kim Wei; Khong, Nicholas M. H.; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah. 2012. "Simulated Gastrointestinal pH Condition Improves Antioxidant Properties of Wheat and Rice Flours." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 6: 7496-7507.

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