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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(6), 7237-7259; doi:10.3390/ijms13067237
Review

Plants versus Fungi and Oomycetes: Pathogenesis, Defense and Counter-Defense in the Proteomics Era

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Received: 3 May 2012; in revised form: 29 May 2012 / Accepted: 30 May 2012 / Published: 13 June 2012
(This article belongs to the collection Advances in Proteomic Research)
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Abstract: Plant-fungi and plant-oomycete interactions have been studied at the proteomic level for many decades. However, it is only in the last few years, with the development of new approaches, combined with bioinformatics data mining tools, gel staining, and analytical instruments, such as 2D-PAGE/nanoflow-LC-MS/MS, that proteomic approaches thrived. They allow screening and analysis, at the sub-cellular level, of peptides and proteins resulting from plants, pathogens, and their interactions. They also highlight post-translational modifications to proteins, e.g., glycosylation, phosphorylation or cleavage. However, many challenges are encountered during in planta studies aimed at stressing details of host defenses and fungal and oomycete pathogenicity determinants during interactions. Dissecting the mechanisms of such host-pathogen systems, including pathogen counter-defenses, will ensure a step ahead towards understanding current outcomes of interactions from a co-evolutionary point of view, and eventually move a step forward in building more durable strategies for management of diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes. Unraveling intricacies of more complex proteomic interactions that involve additional microbes, i.e., PGPRs and symbiotic fungi, which strengthen plant defenses will generate valuable information on how pathosystems actually function in nature, and thereby provide clues to solving disease problems that engender major losses in crops every year.
Keywords: biotrophs; counter-defenses; defenses; effectors; hemibiotrophs; necrotrophs; pathogenicity factors; plant-pathogen interactions; pathosystems; proteome; proteomics approach biotrophs; counter-defenses; defenses; effectors; hemibiotrophs; necrotrophs; pathogenicity factors; plant-pathogen interactions; pathosystems; proteome; proteomics approach
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

El Hadrami, A.; El-Bebany, A.F.; Yao, Z.; Adam, L.R.; El Hadrami, I.; Daayf, F. Plants versus Fungi and Oomycetes: Pathogenesis, Defense and Counter-Defense in the Proteomics Era. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 7237-7259.

AMA Style

El Hadrami A, El-Bebany AF, Yao Z, Adam LR, El Hadrami I, Daayf F. Plants versus Fungi and Oomycetes: Pathogenesis, Defense and Counter-Defense in the Proteomics Era. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(6):7237-7259.

Chicago/Turabian Style

El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; El-Bebany, Ahmed F.; Yao, Zhen; Adam, Lorne R.; El Hadrami, Ismail; Daayf, Fouad. 2012. "Plants versus Fungi and Oomycetes: Pathogenesis, Defense and Counter-Defense in the Proteomics Era." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 6: 7237-7259.


Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert