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Plants versus Fungi and Oomycetes: Pathogenesis, Defense and Counter-Defense in the Proteomics Era
Department of Plant Science, University of Manitoba, 222, Agriculture Building, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2, Canada
OMEX Agriculture Inc., P.O. Box 301, 290 Agri Park Road, Oak Bluff, Manitoba, R0G 1N0, Canada
Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, El-Shatby, Alexandria, 21545, Egypt
Laboratoire de Biotechnologies, Protection et Valorisation des Ressources Végétales (Biotec-VRV), Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, B.P. 2390, Marrakech, 40 000, Morocco
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 May 2012; in revised form: 29 May 2012 / Accepted: 30 May 2012 / Published: 13 June 2012
Abstract: Plant-fungi and plant-oomycete interactions have been studied at the proteomic level for many decades. However, it is only in the last few years, with the development of new approaches, combined with bioinformatics data mining tools, gel staining, and analytical instruments, such as 2D-PAGE/nanoflow-LC-MS/MS, that proteomic approaches thrived. They allow screening and analysis, at the sub-cellular level, of peptides and proteins resulting from plants, pathogens, and their interactions. They also highlight post-translational modifications to proteins, e.g., glycosylation, phosphorylation or cleavage. However, many challenges are encountered during in planta studies aimed at stressing details of host defenses and fungal and oomycete pathogenicity determinants during interactions. Dissecting the mechanisms of such host-pathogen systems, including pathogen counter-defenses, will ensure a step ahead towards understanding current outcomes of interactions from a co-evolutionary point of view, and eventually move a step forward in building more durable strategies for management of diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes. Unraveling intricacies of more complex proteomic interactions that involve additional microbes, i.e., PGPRs and symbiotic fungi, which strengthen plant defenses will generate valuable information on how pathosystems actually function in nature, and thereby provide clues to solving disease problems that engender major losses in crops every year.
Keywords: biotrophs; counter-defenses; defenses; effectors; hemibiotrophs; necrotrophs; pathogenicity factors; plant-pathogen interactions; pathosystems; proteome; proteomics approach
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El Hadrami, A.; El-Bebany, A.F.; Yao, Z.; Adam, L.R.; El Hadrami, I.; Daayf, F. Plants versus Fungi and Oomycetes: Pathogenesis, Defense and Counter-Defense in the Proteomics Era. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 7237-7259.
El Hadrami A, El-Bebany AF, Yao Z, Adam LR, El Hadrami I, Daayf F. Plants versus Fungi and Oomycetes: Pathogenesis, Defense and Counter-Defense in the Proteomics Era. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(6):7237-7259.
El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; El-Bebany, Ahmed F.; Yao, Zhen; Adam, Lorne R.; El Hadrami, Ismail; Daayf, Fouad. 2012. "Plants versus Fungi and Oomycetes: Pathogenesis, Defense and Counter-Defense in the Proteomics Era." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 6: 7237-7259.