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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(6), 6772-6799; doi:10.3390/ijms13066772

Mechanistic Insights into Neurotoxicity Induced by Anesthetics in the Developing Brain

1
Department of Anesthesiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China
2
Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 March 2012 / Revised: 12 May 2012 / Accepted: 25 May 2012 / Published: 4 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Organ-Specific Toxicity)
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Abstract

Compelling evidence has shown that exposure to anesthetics used in the clinic can cause neurodegeneration in the mammalian developing brain, but the basis of this is not clear. Neurotoxicity induced by exposure to anesthestics in early life involves neuroapoptosis and impairment of neurodevelopmental processes such as neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and immature glial development. These effects may subsequently contribute to behavior abnormalities in later life. In this paper, we reviewed the possible mechanisms of anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity based on new in vitro and in vivo findings. Also, we discussed ways to protect against anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity and their implications for exploring cellular and molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection. These findings help in improving our understanding of developmental neurotoxicology and in avoiding adverse neurological outcomes in anesthesia practice.
Keywords: general anesthetics; apoptosis; neurotoxicity; mechanisms; developing brain general anesthetics; apoptosis; neurotoxicity; mechanisms; developing brain
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lei, X.; Guo, Q.; Zhang, J. Mechanistic Insights into Neurotoxicity Induced by Anesthetics in the Developing Brain. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 6772-6799.

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