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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(6), 6772-6799; doi:10.3390/ijms13066772
Review

Mechanistic Insights into Neurotoxicity Induced by Anesthetics in the Developing Brain

1
, 2
 and 1,*
Received: 28 March 2012; in revised form: 12 May 2012 / Accepted: 25 May 2012 / Published: 4 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Organ-Specific Toxicity)
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Abstract: Compelling evidence has shown that exposure to anesthetics used in the clinic can cause neurodegeneration in the mammalian developing brain, but the basis of this is not clear. Neurotoxicity induced by exposure to anesthestics in early life involves neuroapoptosis and impairment of neurodevelopmental processes such as neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and immature glial development. These effects may subsequently contribute to behavior abnormalities in later life. In this paper, we reviewed the possible mechanisms of anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity based on new in vitro and in vivo findings. Also, we discussed ways to protect against anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity and their implications for exploring cellular and molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection. These findings help in improving our understanding of developmental neurotoxicology and in avoiding adverse neurological outcomes in anesthesia practice.
Keywords: general anesthetics; apoptosis; neurotoxicity; mechanisms; developing brain general anesthetics; apoptosis; neurotoxicity; mechanisms; developing brain
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lei, X.; Guo, Q.; Zhang, J. Mechanistic Insights into Neurotoxicity Induced by Anesthetics in the Developing Brain. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 6772-6799.

AMA Style

Lei X, Guo Q, Zhang J. Mechanistic Insights into Neurotoxicity Induced by Anesthetics in the Developing Brain. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(6):6772-6799.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lei, Xi; Guo, Qihao; Zhang, Jun. 2012. "Mechanistic Insights into Neurotoxicity Induced by Anesthetics in the Developing Brain." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 6: 6772-6799.


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