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Ginsenoside Rg3 Reduces Lipid Accumulation with AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activation in HepG2 Cells
Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Korea
Food Bio-Nano Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam, Gyeonggi 463-746, Korea
Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Health Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-703, Korea
These authors contributed equally to the work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2012; in revised form: 10 April 2012 / Accepted: 7 May 2012 / Published: 11 May 2012
Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the main causes of mortality worldwide, and dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for CVD. Ginseng has been widely used in the clinic to treat CVD. Ginsenoside Rg3, one of the major active components of ginseng, has been reported to exhibit antiobesity, antidiabetic, and cardioprotective effects. However, the effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether ginsenoside Rg3 would regulate hepatic lipid metabolism with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in HepG2 cells. Ginsenoside Rg3 significantly reduced hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rg3 inhibited expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR). Ginsenoside Rg3 increased activity of AMPK, a major regulator of energy metabolism. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rg3 reduces hepatic lipid accumulation with inhibition of SREBP-2 and HMGCR expression and stimulation of AMPK activity in HepG2 cells. Therefore, ginsenoside Rg3 may be beneficial as a food ingredient to lower the risk of CVD by regulating dyslipidemia.
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease (CVD); ginsenoside Rg3; cholesterol; triglyceride; SREBP-2; HMGCR; AMPK
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MDPI and ACS Style
Lee, S.; Lee, M.-S.; Kim, C.-T.; Kim, I.-H.; Kim, Y. Ginsenoside Rg3 Reduces Lipid Accumulation with AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activation in HepG2 Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 5729-5739.
Lee S, Lee M-S, Kim C-T, Kim I-H, Kim Y. Ginsenoside Rg3 Reduces Lipid Accumulation with AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activation in HepG2 Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(5):5729-5739.
Lee, Seohyun; Lee, Mak-Soon; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, In-Hwan; Kim, Yangha. 2012. "Ginsenoside Rg3 Reduces Lipid Accumulation with AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activation in HepG2 Cells." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 5: 5729-5739.