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Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle) Peel
Department of Public Health, Hua Xi Medicinal Center of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
West China Fourth Hospital & Occupational Diseases Hospital, Hua Xi Medicinal Center of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 January 2012; in revised form: 24 February 2012 / Accepted: 24 February 2012 / Published: 12 March 2012
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the main constituents of the essential oil isolated from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel by hydro-distillation, and to test the efficacy of the essential oil on antimicrobial activity. Twenty-five components, representing 92.36% of the total oil, were identified by GC-MS analysis. The essential oil showed potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative (E. coli and S. typhimurium) and Gram-positive (S. aureus, B. cereus, B. subtilis, L. bulgaricus, and B. laterosporus) bacteria, together with a remarkable antifungal activity against C. albicans. In a food model of beef extract, the essential oil was observed to possess an effective capacity to control the total counts of viable bacteria. Furthermore, the essential oil showed strongly detrimental effects on the growth and morphological structure of the tested bacteria. It was suggested that the essential oil from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel might be used as a natural food preservative against bacteria or fungus in the food industry.
Keywords: Fortunella crassifolia; essential oil; chemical composition; food-borne bacteria; antimicrobial activity
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MDPI and ACS Style
Wang, Y.-W.; Zeng, W.-C.; Xu, P.-Y.; Lan, Y.-J.; Zhu, R.-X.; Zhong, K.; Huang, Y.-N.; Gao, H. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle) Peel. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 3382-3393.
Wang Y-W, Zeng W-C, Xu P-Y, Lan Y-J, Zhu R-X, Zhong K, Huang Y-N, Gao H. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle) Peel. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(3):3382-3393.
Wang, Yong-Wei; Zeng, Wei-Cai; Xu, Pei-Yu; Lan, Ya-Jia; Zhu, Rui-Xue; Zhong, Kai; Huang, Yi-Na; Gao, Hong. 2012. "Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle) Peel." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 3: 3382-3393.