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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 2314-2330; doi:10.3390/ijms13022314

Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Red Ginseng Essential Oil in H2O2-Treated HepG2 Cells and CCl4-Treated Mice

1,†
,
2,†
and
1,*
1
Institute for Phytochemical-Drug Interactions, Department of Food & Life Sciences, College of Biomedical Science & Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae 621-749, Korea
2
Department of Food Science & Nutrition, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2011 / Revised: 10 February 2012 / Accepted: 14 February 2012 / Published: 21 February 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant mechanisms of red ginseng essential oil (REO) in cells as well as in an animal model. REO was prepared by a supercritical CO2 extraction of waste-products generated after hot water extraction of red ginseng. In HepG2 cells, REO diminished the H2O2-mediated oxidative stress and also restored both the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Administration of REO inhibited the phosphorylation of upstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38. In mice, the CCl4-mediated elevation of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase as well as the induction of hepatic lipid peroxidation were decreased by REO administration. REO treatments also resulted in up-regulation of the antioxidant enzyme expression in the liver. Moreover, increased phosphorylations of MAPKs were inhibited after REO administration. Overall, REO seems to protect the liver from oxidative stress through the activation and induction of antioxidant enzymes via inhibition of MAPKs pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant enzymes; SOD; GPx; Catalase; MAPK; red ginseng essential oil; Panax ginseng antioxidant enzymes; SOD; GPx; Catalase; MAPK; red ginseng essential oil; Panax ginseng
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Bak, M.-J.; Jun, M.; Jeong, W.-S. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Red Ginseng Essential Oil in H2O2-Treated HepG2 Cells and CCl4-Treated Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 2314-2330.

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