Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 2314-2330; doi:10.3390/ijms13022314
Article

Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Red Ginseng Essential Oil in H2O2-Treated HepG2 Cells and CCl4-Treated Mice

1,†email, 2,†email and 1,* email
Received: 19 December 2011; in revised form: 10 February 2012 / Accepted: 14 February 2012 / Published: 21 February 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)
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Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant mechanisms of red ginseng essential oil (REO) in cells as well as in an animal model. REO was prepared by a supercritical CO2 extraction of waste-products generated after hot water extraction of red ginseng. In HepG2 cells, REO diminished the H2O2-mediated oxidative stress and also restored both the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Administration of REO inhibited the phosphorylation of upstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38. In mice, the CCl4-mediated elevation of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase as well as the induction of hepatic lipid peroxidation were decreased by REO administration. REO treatments also resulted in up-regulation of the antioxidant enzyme expression in the liver. Moreover, increased phosphorylations of MAPKs were inhibited after REO administration. Overall, REO seems to protect the liver from oxidative stress through the activation and induction of antioxidant enzymes via inhibition of MAPKs pathways.
Keywords: antioxidant enzymes; SOD; GPx; Catalase; MAPK; red ginseng essential oil; Panax ginseng
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bak, M.-J.; Jun, M.; Jeong, W.-S. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Red Ginseng Essential Oil in H2O2-Treated HepG2 Cells and CCl4-Treated Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 2314-2330.

AMA Style

Bak M-J, Jun M, Jeong W-S. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Red Ginseng Essential Oil in H2O2-Treated HepG2 Cells and CCl4-Treated Mice. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(2):2314-2330.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bak, Min-Ji; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik. 2012. "Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Red Ginseng Essential Oil in H2O2-Treated HepG2 Cells and CCl4-Treated Mice." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 2: 2314-2330.


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