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Muscodor albus Volatiles Control Toxigenic Fungi under Controlled Atmosphere (CA) Storage Conditions
Atlantic Food and Horticulture Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 32 Main St., Kentville, NS B4N 1J5, Canada
Via Farense n.91, Passo Corese, 02032 Fara in Sabina (RI), Italy
Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, NS B2N 5E3, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 November 2012; in revised form: 15 November 2012 / Accepted: 21 November 2012 / Published: 27 November 2012
Abstract: Muscodor albus, a biofumigant fungus, has the potential to control post-harvest pathogens in storage. It has been shown to produce over 20 volatile compounds with fungicidal, bactericidal and insecticidal properties. However, M. albus is a warm climate endophyte, and its biofumigant activity is significantly inhibited at temperatures below 5 °C. Conidia of seven mycotoxin producing fungi, Aspergillus carbonarius, A. flavus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, Penicillium verrucosum, Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum, were killed or prevented from germinating by exposure to volatiles from 2 g M. albus-colonized rye grain per L of headspace in sealed glass jars for 24 h at 20 °C. Two major volatiles of M. albus, isobutyric acid (IBA) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (2MB) at 50 µL/L and 100 µL/L, respectively, gave differential control of the seven fungi when applied individually at 20 °C. When the fungi were exposed to both IBA and 2MB together, an average of 94% of the conidia were killed or suppressed. In a factorial experiment with controlled atmosphere storage (CA) at 3 °C and 72 h exposure to four concentrations of IBA and 2MB combinations, 50 µL/L IBA plus 100 µL/L 2MB killed or suppressed germination of the conidia of all seven fungi. Controlled atmosphere had no significant effect on conidial viability or volatile efficacy. Major volatiles of M. albus may have significant potential to control plant pathogens in either ambient air or CA storage at temperatures below 5 °C. However, combinations of volatiles may be required to provide a broader spectrum of control than individual volatiles.
Keywords: Muscodor albus; post-harvest pathogen control; controlled atmosphere storage; toxigenic fungi; mycotoxin; fumigation; natural volatiles
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Braun, G.; Vailati, M.; Prange, R.; Bevis, E. Muscodor albus Volatiles Control Toxigenic Fungi under Controlled Atmosphere (CA) Storage Conditions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 15848-15858.
Braun G, Vailati M, Prange R, Bevis E. Muscodor albus Volatiles Control Toxigenic Fungi under Controlled Atmosphere (CA) Storage Conditions. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(12):15848-15858.
Braun, Gordon; Vailati, Matteo; Prange, Robert; Bevis, Eric. 2012. "Muscodor albus Volatiles Control Toxigenic Fungi under Controlled Atmosphere (CA) Storage Conditions." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 12: 15848-15858.