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A Review of Molecular Mechanisms of the Anti-Leukemic Effects of Phenolic Compounds in Honey
Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
Department of Haematology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 September 2012; in revised form: 10 October 2012 / Accepted: 25 October 2012 / Published: 15 November 2012
Abstract: Hematologic malignancies constitute about 9% of all new cases of cancers as reported via the GLOBOCAN series by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2008. So far, the conventional therapeutic and surgical approaches to cancer therapy have not been able to curtail the rising incidence of cancers, including hematological malignancies, worldwide. The last decade has witnessed great research interest in biological activities of phenolic compounds that include anticancer, anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, among other things. A large number of anticancer agents combat cancer through cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis and differentiation, as well as through inhibition of cell growth and proliferation, or a combination of two or more of these mechanisms. Various phenolic compounds from different sources have been reported to be promising anticancer agents by acting through one of these mechanisms. Honey, which has a long history of human consumption both for medicinal and nutritional uses, contains a variety of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins and tannins. This paper presents a review on the molecular mechanisms of the anti-leukemic activity of various phenolic compounds on cell cycle, cell growth and proliferation and apoptosis, and it advocates that more studies should be conducted to determine the potential role of honey in both chemoprevention and chemotherapy in leukemia.
Keywords: leukemia; honey; phenolic compounds; cell cycle; apoptosis; cell growth and proliferation
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Abubakar, M.B.; Abdullah, W.Z.; Sulaiman, S.A.; Suen, A.B. A Review of Molecular Mechanisms of the Anti-Leukemic Effects of Phenolic Compounds in Honey. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 15054-15073.
Abubakar MB, Abdullah WZ, Sulaiman SA, Suen AB. A Review of Molecular Mechanisms of the Anti-Leukemic Effects of Phenolic Compounds in Honey. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(11):15054-15073.
Abubakar, Murtala B.; Abdullah, Wan Z.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Suen, Ang B. 2012. "A Review of Molecular Mechanisms of the Anti-Leukemic Effects of Phenolic Compounds in Honey." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 11: 15054-15073.