Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
An Advanced Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spin-Trapping and LC/(ESR)/MS Technique for the Study of Lipid Peroxidation
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Nursing and Allied Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 September 2012; in revised form: 1 November 2012 / Accepted: 2 November 2012 / Published: 12 November 2012
Abstract: There are two types of nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), namely ω-6s and ω-3s. PUFAs and their metabolites generated from lipid peroxidation via cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) are believed to be involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes in the human body. Both COX- and LOX-catalyzed PUFA peroxidation are complex events that generate a series of radicals, which may then bind proteins, target DNA/RNA, and lead to a number of biological changes. However, due to the lack of an appropriate method, it was not possible until recently to identify the short-lived PUFA-derived radicals in COX-/LOX-catalyzed peroxidation. Failure to characterize free radicals during peroxidation has greatly restricted our knowledge about COX/LOX biology in human health. Here we review the development and refinement of combined ESR spin trapping and LC/ESR/MS to characterize PUFA-derived radicals formed from in vitro (cell-free) peroxidation. We also present the most recent approach for studying peroxidation in cells which allows us to directly assess the potential bioactivity of PUFA-derived free radicals. This advanced technique has resulted in a major breakthrough in radical structural characterization, as well as assessment of free radical-associated cell growth response, thereby greatly improving our knowledge of PUFAs, COX-/LOX-catalyzed lipid peroxidation, and their related biological consequences.
Keywords: COX- and LOX-catalyzed lipid peroxidation; ESR spin-trapping; free radicals from cellular peroxidation; human colon cancer HCA7 colony 29 cells; LC/ESR and LC/MS combined technique
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Xu, Y.; Gu, Y.; Qian, S.Y. An Advanced Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spin-Trapping and LC/(ESR)/MS Technique for the Study of Lipid Peroxidation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 14648-14666.
Xu Y, Gu Y, Qian SY. An Advanced Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spin-Trapping and LC/(ESR)/MS Technique for the Study of Lipid Peroxidation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(11):14648-14666.
Xu, Yi; Gu, Yan; Qian, Steven Y. 2012. "An Advanced Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spin-Trapping and LC/(ESR)/MS Technique for the Study of Lipid Peroxidation." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 11: 14648-14666.