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Oxidant Stress and Signal Transduction in the Nervous System with the PI 3-K, Akt, and mTOR Cascade
Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Signaling, Newark, NJ 07101, USA
Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA
New Jersey Health Sciences University, 205 South Orange Avenue, Newark, NJ 07101, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 October 2012; in revised form: 19 October 2012 / Accepted: 19 October 2012 / Published: 26 October 2012
Abstract: Oxidative stress impacts multiple systems of the body and can lead to some of the most devastating consequences in the nervous system especially during aging. Both acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as diabetes mellitus, cerebral ischemia, trauma, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and tuberous sclerosis through programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis and autophagy can be the result of oxidant stress. Novel therapeutic avenues that focus upon the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K), Akt (protein kinase B), and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade and related pathways offer exciting prospects to address the onset and potential reversal of neurodegenerative disorders. Effective clinical translation of these pathways into robust therapeutic strategies requires intimate knowledge of the complexity of these pathways and the ability of this cascade to influence biological outcome that can vary among disorders of the nervous system.
Keywords: Akt; Alzheimer’s disease; apoptosis; autophagy; diabetes mellitus; Huntington’s disease; mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR); oxidative stress; Parkinson’s disease; phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K); SIRT1
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Maiese, K.; Chong, Z.Z.; Wang, S.; Shang, Y.C. Oxidant Stress and Signal Transduction in the Nervous System with the PI 3-K, Akt, and mTOR Cascade. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 13830-13866.
Maiese K, Chong ZZ, Wang S, Shang YC. Oxidant Stress and Signal Transduction in the Nervous System with the PI 3-K, Akt, and mTOR Cascade. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(11):13830-13866.
Maiese, Kenneth; Chong, Zhao Z.; Wang, Shaohui; Shang, Yan C. 2012. "Oxidant Stress and Signal Transduction in the Nervous System with the PI 3-K, Akt, and mTOR Cascade." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 11: 13830-13866.