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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(11), 13830-13866; doi:10.3390/ijms131113830
Article

Oxidant Stress and Signal Transduction in the Nervous System with the PI 3-K, Akt, and mTOR Cascade

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Received: 8 October 2012; in revised form: 19 October 2012 / Accepted: 19 October 2012 / Published: 26 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Ageing)
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Abstract: Oxidative stress impacts multiple systems of the body and can lead to some of the most devastating consequences in the nervous system especially during aging. Both acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as diabetes mellitus, cerebral ischemia, trauma, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and tuberous sclerosis through programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis and autophagy can be the result of oxidant stress. Novel therapeutic avenues that focus upon the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K), Akt (protein kinase B), and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade and related pathways offer exciting prospects to address the onset and potential reversal of neurodegenerative disorders. Effective clinical translation of these pathways into robust therapeutic strategies requires intimate knowledge of the complexity of these pathways and the ability of this cascade to influence biological outcome that can vary among disorders of the nervous system.
Keywords: Akt; Alzheimer’s disease; apoptosis; autophagy; diabetes mellitus; Huntington’s disease; mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR); oxidative stress; Parkinson’s disease; phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K); SIRT1 Akt; Alzheimer’s disease; apoptosis; autophagy; diabetes mellitus; Huntington’s disease; mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR); oxidative stress; Parkinson’s disease; phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K); SIRT1
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Maiese, K.; Chong, Z.Z.; Wang, S.; Shang, Y.C. Oxidant Stress and Signal Transduction in the Nervous System with the PI 3-K, Akt, and mTOR Cascade. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 13830-13866.

AMA Style

Maiese K, Chong ZZ, Wang S, Shang YC. Oxidant Stress and Signal Transduction in the Nervous System with the PI 3-K, Akt, and mTOR Cascade. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(11):13830-13866.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maiese, Kenneth; Chong, Zhao Z.; Wang, Shaohui; Shang, Yan C. 2012. "Oxidant Stress and Signal Transduction in the Nervous System with the PI 3-K, Akt, and mTOR Cascade." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 11: 13830-13866.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert