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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 651-664; doi:10.3390/ijms13010651

Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects Triggered by Grape Seed Extract (GSE) versus Epigallocatechin and Procyanidins on Colon Cancer Cell Lines

1 Department of Experimental Medicine, “La Sapienza” University, Viale Regina Elena 324, Rome 00161, Italy 2 Department of Surgery ‘Pietro Valdoni’, “La Sapienza” University, Via A. Scarpa 14, Rome 00161, Italy 3 Department of Neuroscience and Imaging, “G. D’Annunzio” University, Via dei Vestini 29, Chieti Scalo 66013, Italy 4 Italian Space Agency, Viale Liegi 26, Rome 00198, Italy 5 Department of Environmental Biology, “La Sapienza” University, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, Rome 00185, Italy 6 CRA (Agricultural Research Council), Via Casamassima 148, Turi (Bari) 70010, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 September 2011 / Revised: 14 November 2011 / Accepted: 4 January 2012 / Published: 10 January 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)
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Grape seed extract has been proven to exert anticancer effects on different tumors. These effects are mainly ascribed to catechin and procyanidin content. Analytical studies demonstrated that grape seed extract composition is complex and it is likely other components could exert biological activities. Using cell count and flow cytometry assays, we evaluated the cytostatic and apoptotic effects produced by three different grape seed extracts from Italia, Palieri and Red Globe cultivars, on Caco2 and HCT-8 colon cancer cells. These effects were compared to those induced by epigallocatechin and procyanidins, alone or in association, on the same cell lines. All the extracts induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in Caco2 and HCT-8 cells, along the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. On both cell lines, growth inhibition induced by Italia and Palieri grape seed extracts was significantly higher than that it has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. In Caco2 cells, the extract from Red Globe cultivar was less effective in inducing growth inhibition than procyanidins alone and in association with epigallocatechin, whereas, in HCT-8 cells, only the association of epigallocatechin and procyanidins triggers a significant proliferation decrease. On both cell lines, apoptosis induced by Italia, Palieri and Red Globe grape seed extracts was considerably higher than has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. These data support the hypothesis by which other compounds, present in the grape seed extracts, are likely to enhance the anticancer effects.
Keywords: apoptosis; Caco2; HCT-8 apoptosis; Caco2; HCT-8
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Dinicola, S.; Cucina, A.; Pasqualato, A.; D’Anselmi, F.; Proietti, S.; Lisi, E.; Pasqua, G.; Antonacci, D.; Bizzarri, M. Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects Triggered by Grape Seed Extract (GSE) versus Epigallocatechin and Procyanidins on Colon Cancer Cell Lines. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 651-664.

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