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Nutraceutical Approach for Preventing Obesity-Related Colorectal and Liver Carcinogenesis
Department of Medicine, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu 501-1194, Japan
The Tohkai Cytopathology Institute: Cancer Research and Prevention (TCI-CaRP), Gifu 500-8285, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2011; in revised form: 20 December 2011 / Accepted: 27 December 2011 / Published: 5 January 2012
Abstract: Obesity and its related metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, alterations in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) axis, and the state of chronic inflammation, increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, these findings also indicate that the metabolic disorders caused by obesity might be effective targets to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals. Green tea catechins (GTCs) possess anticancer and chemopreventive properties against cancer in various organs, including the colorectum and liver. GTCs have also been known to exert anti-obesity, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects, indicating that GTCs might be useful for the prevention of obesity-associated colorectal and liver carcinogenesis. Further, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), which improve protein malnutrition and prevent progressive hepatic failure in patients with chronic liver diseases, might be also effective for the suppression of obesity-related carcinogenesis because oral supplementation with BCAA reduces the risk of HCC in obese cirrhotic patients. BCAA shows these beneficial effects because they can improve insulin resistance. Here, we review the detailed relationship between metabolic abnormalities and the development of CRC and HCC. We also review evidence, especially that based on our basic and clinical research using GTCs and BCAA, which indicates that targeting metabolic abnormalities by either pharmaceutical or nutritional intervention may be an effective strategy to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals.
Keywords: obesity; colorectal cancer; hepatocellular carcinoma; chemoprevention; green tea catechins; branched-chain amino acids
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Shimizu, M.; Kubota, M.; Tanaka, T.; Moriwaki, H. Nutraceutical Approach for Preventing Obesity-Related Colorectal and Liver Carcinogenesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 579-595.
Shimizu M, Kubota M, Tanaka T, Moriwaki H. Nutraceutical Approach for Preventing Obesity-Related Colorectal and Liver Carcinogenesis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(1):579-595.
Shimizu, Masahito; Kubota, Masaya; Tanaka, Takuji; Moriwaki, Hisataka. 2012. "Nutraceutical Approach for Preventing Obesity-Related Colorectal and Liver Carcinogenesis." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 1: 579-595.