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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 393-408; doi:10.3390/ijms13010393
Article

Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah)

1
, 1,* , 2
 and 3
Received: 12 November 2011; in revised form: 18 December 2011 / Accepted: 19 December 2011 / Published: 29 December 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Abstract: A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH) in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effects observed. As the nitrogen levels decreased from 270 to 0 kg N/ha, the production of GSH and GSSG, anthocyanin, total flavonoid and ascorbic acid increased steadily. At the highest nitrogen treatment level, L. pumila exhibited significantly lower antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP) than those exposed to limited nitrogen growing conditions. Significant positive correlation was obtained between antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP), total flavonoid, GSH, GSSG, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid suggesting that an increase in the antioxidative activities in L. pumila under low nitrogen fertilization could be attributed to higher contents of these compounds. From this observation, it could be concluded that in order to avoid negative effects on the quality of L. pumila, it is advisable to avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer when cultivating the herb for its medicinal use.
Keywords: Labisia pumila Blume; nitrogen fertilization; plant secondary metabolites; gluthatione; DPPH radical scavenging; ferric reducing antioxidant power Labisia pumila Blume; nitrogen fertilization; plant secondary metabolites; gluthatione; DPPH radical scavenging; ferric reducing antioxidant power
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ibrahim, M.H.; Jaafar, H.Z.E.; Rahmat, A.; Rahman, Z.A. Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 393-408.

AMA Style

Ibrahim MH, Jaafar HZE, Rahmat A, Rahman ZA. Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(1):393-408.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul. 2012. "Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah)." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 1: 393-408.



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