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Mechanisms of Mycotoxin-Induced Neurotoxicity through Oxidative Stress-Associated Pathways
Nippon Institute for Biological Science, 9-2221-1, Shin-Machi, Ome, Tokyo 198-0024, Japan
Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 June 2011; in revised form: 21 July 2011 / Accepted: 4 August 2011 / Published: 15 August 2011
Abstract: Among many mycotoxins, T-2 toxin, macrocyclic trichothecenes, fumonisin B1 (FB1) and ochratochin A (OTA) are known to have the potential to induce neurotoxicity in rodent models. T-2 toxin induces neuronal cell apoptosis in the fetal and adult brain. Macrocyclic trichothecenes bring about neuronal cell apoptosis and inflammation in the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb. FB1 induces neuronal degeneration in the cerebral cortex, concurrent with disruption of de novo ceramide synthesis. OTA causes acute depletion of striatal dopamine and its metabolites, accompanying evidence of neuronal cell apoptosis in the substantia nigra, striatum and hippocampus. This paper reviews the mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by these mycotoxins especially from the viewpoint of oxidative stress-associated pathways.
Keywords: neurotoxicity; T-2 toxin; macrocyclic trichothecenes; fumonisin B1; ochratoxin A
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MDPI and ACS Style
Doi, K.; Uetsuka, K. Mechanisms of Mycotoxin-Induced Neurotoxicity through Oxidative Stress-Associated Pathways. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 5213-5237.
Doi K, Uetsuka K. Mechanisms of Mycotoxin-Induced Neurotoxicity through Oxidative Stress-Associated Pathways. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(8):5213-5237.
Doi, Kunio; Uetsuka, Koji. 2011. "Mechanisms of Mycotoxin-Induced Neurotoxicity through Oxidative Stress-Associated Pathways." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 8: 5213-5237.