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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(4), 2463-2476; doi:10.3390/ijms12042463
Article

Economic Optimized Medium for Tensio-Active Agent Production by Candida sphaerica UCP0995 and Application in the Removal of Hydrophobic Contaminant from Sand

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Received: 1 March 2011; in revised form: 14 March 2011 / Accepted: 23 March 2011 / Published: 8 April 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosurfactants)
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Abstract: Statistical experimental designs and response surface methodology were employed to optimize the concentrations of agroindustrial residues as soybean oil (SORR) from refinery, and corn steep liquor (CSL) from corn industry, for tensio-active agent produced by Candida sphaerica UCP 0995. Three 22 full factorial design were applied sequentially to investigate the effects of the concentrations and interactions of soybean oil refinery residue and corn steep liquor on the surface tension of free-cell culture broth for 144 h. Two 22 central composite designs and response surface methodology were adopted to derive a statistical model to measure the effect of SORR and CSL on the surface tension of the free-cell culture broth for 144 h. The regression equation obtained from the experimental data using a central composite design was solved, and by analyzing the response surface contour plots, the optimal concentrations of the constituents of the medium were determined: 8.63% v/v (≈9% v/v) of SORR and 8.80% v/v (≈9% v/v) CSL. The minimum surface tension predicted and experimentally confirmed was 25.25 mN/m. The new biosurfactant, denominated Lunasan, recovered 95% of motor oil adsorbed in a sand sample, thus showing great potential for use in bioremediation processes, especially in the petroleum industry.
Keywords: factorial design; central composite design; optimization; Candida sphaerica; tensio-active agent factorial design; central composite design; optimization; Candida sphaerica; tensio-active agent
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Luna, J.M.; Rufino, R.D.; Albuquerque, C.D.; Sarubbo, L.A.; Campos-Takaki, G.M. Economic Optimized Medium for Tensio-Active Agent Production by Candida sphaerica UCP0995 and Application in the Removal of Hydrophobic Contaminant from Sand. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 2463-2476.

AMA Style

Luna JM, Rufino RD, Albuquerque CD, Sarubbo LA, Campos-Takaki GM. Economic Optimized Medium for Tensio-Active Agent Production by Candida sphaerica UCP0995 and Application in the Removal of Hydrophobic Contaminant from Sand. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(4):2463-2476.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Luna, Juliana M.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Albuquerque, Clarissa D.C.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.; Campos-Takaki, Galba M. 2011. "Economic Optimized Medium for Tensio-Active Agent Production by Candida sphaerica UCP0995 and Application in the Removal of Hydrophobic Contaminant from Sand." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 4: 2463-2476.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert