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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(12), 9226-9235; doi:10.3390/ijms12129226
Article

The Effect of the Acetone Extract of Arctotis arctotoides (Asteraceae) on the Growth and Ultrastructure of Some Opportunistic Fungi Associated with HIV/AIDS

1
,
1,*  and 1,2
1 School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Fort Hare, P/Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa 2 Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Buea Box 63, Cameroon
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2011 / Revised: 23 November 2011 / Accepted: 24 November 2011 / Published: 9 December 2011
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Abstract

In this study, the effect of the acetone extract of Arctotis arctotoides (L.f.) O. Hoffm. (Asteraceae) on the growth and ultrastructure of some opportunistic fungi associated with HIV/AIDS was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM). Remarkable morphological alterations in the fungal mycelia which were attributed to the loss of cell wall strength ranged from loss of turgidity and uniformity, collapse of entire hyphae to evident destruction of the hyphae. The elements responsible for giving the fungi their characteristic virulence were detected and quantified by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis techniques. X-ray microanalysis showed the specific spectra of sodium, potassium and sulfur as the principal intersection of the four pathogenic fungi studied. Since these ions have the potential of fostering fungal invasion by altering the permeability of hosts’ membranes, their presence was considered inherent to the pathogenicity of the opportunistic fungi. Hence, these findings indicate the potential of the crude extract of A. arctotoides in preventing fungal invasion and subsequent infection of host’s membranes.
Keywords: HIV/AIDS; opportunistic fungi; Arctotis arctotoides; scanning electron microscopy; energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy HIV/AIDS; opportunistic fungi; Arctotis arctotoides; scanning electron microscopy; energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Otang, W.M.; Grierson, D.S.; Ndip, R.N. The Effect of the Acetone Extract of Arctotis arctotoides (Asteraceae) on the Growth and Ultrastructure of Some Opportunistic Fungi Associated with HIV/AIDS. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 9226-9235.

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