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The Wnt and BMP Families of Signaling Morphogens at the Vertebrate Neuromuscular Junction
Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology (LDNB), Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Concepcion, and CMA Bio-Bio, Concepcion 4089100, Chile
University of Michigan, 5211 Dental, Ann Arbor, Michigan, MI 48109, USA
Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaiso 2340025, Chile
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2011; in revised form: 18 November 2011 / Accepted: 22 November 2011 / Published: 5 December 2011
Abstract: The neuromuscular junction has been extensively employed in order to identify crucial determinants of synaptogenesis. At the vertebrate neuromuscular synapse, extracellular matrix and signaling proteins play stimulatory and inhibitory roles on the assembly of functional synapses. Studies in invertebrate species have revealed crucial functions of early morphogens during the assembly and maturation of the neuromuscular junction. Here, we discuss growing evidence addressing the function of Wnt and Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways at the vertebrate neuromuscular synapse. We focus on the emerging role of Wnt proteins as positive and negative regulators of postsynaptic differentiation. We also address the possible involvement of BMP pathways on motor neuron behavior for the assembly and/or regeneration of the neuromuscular junction.
Keywords: Wnt; BMP; neuromuscular junction
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Henríquez, J.P.; Krull, C.E.; Osses, N. The Wnt and BMP Families of Signaling Morphogens at the Vertebrate Neuromuscular Junction. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 8924-8946.
Henríquez JP, Krull CE, Osses N. The Wnt and BMP Families of Signaling Morphogens at the Vertebrate Neuromuscular Junction. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(12):8924-8946.
Henríquez, Juan P.; Krull, Catherine E.; Osses, Nelson. 2011. "The Wnt and BMP Families of Signaling Morphogens at the Vertebrate Neuromuscular Junction." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 12: 8924-8946.