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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(12), 8913-8923; doi:10.3390/ijms12128913

Production and Radioprotective Effects of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone

, 2,†
, 1,†
, 3
, 1
, 4
, 4
, 4
, 3
, 3
, 3
 and 1,*
1 Laboratory of Microorganism Engineering, Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, Beijing 100071, China 2 Central Laboratory, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361003, China 3 Department of Pharmacology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850, China 4 School of Life Science and Biochemical Pharmaceutical, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 October 2011 / Revised: 22 November 2011 / Accepted: 24 November 2011 / Published: 5 December 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was produced by fermentation of the Methylovorus sp. MP688 strain and purified by ion-exchange chromatography, crystallization and recrystallization. The yield of PQQ reached approximately 125 mg/L and highly pure PQQ was obtained. To determine the optimum dose of PQQ for radioprotection, three doses (2 mg/kg, 4 mg/kg, 8 mg/kg) of PQQ were orally administrated to the experimental animals subjected to a lethal dose of 8.0 Gy in survival test. Survival of mice in the irradiation + PQQ (4 mg/kg) group was found to be significantly higher in comparison with the irradiation and irradiation + nilestriol (10 mg/kg) groups. The numbers of hematocytes and bone marrow cells were measured for 21 days after sublethal 4 Gy gamma-ray irradiation with per os of 4 mg/kg of PQQ. The recovery of white blood cells, reticulocytes and bone marrow cells in the irradiation + PQQ group was faster than that in the irradiation group. Furthermore, the recovery of bone marrow cell in the irradiation + PQQ group was superior to that in irradiation + nilestriol group. Our results clearly indicate favourable effects on survival under higher lethal radiation doses and the ability of pyrroloquinoline quinine to enhance haemopoietic recovery after sublethal radiation exposure.
Keywords: methylotroph; pyrroloquinoline quinine; radioprotective; hematopoiesis; survival methylotroph; pyrroloquinoline quinine; radioprotective; hematopoiesis; survival
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Xiong, X.-H.; Zhao, Y.; Ge, X.; Yuan, S.-J.; Wang, J.-H.; Zhi, J.-J.; Yang, Y.-X.; Du, B.-H.; Guo, W.-J.; Wang, S.-S.; Yang, D.-X.; Zhang, W.-C. Production and Radioprotective Effects of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 8913-8923.

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