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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 7846-7860; doi:10.3390/ijms12117846
Article

Rapid and Green Analytical Method for the Determination of Quinoline Alkaloids from Cinchona succirubra Based on Microwave-Integrated Extraction and Leaching (MIEL) Prior to High Performance Liquid Chromatography

1,* , 2
, 2
, 2
, 1
 and 1
1 UMR 408 INRA, Safety and Quality of Plant Products, University of Avignon, 84000 Avignon, France 2 CNRS UMR 6014, C.O.B.R.A., UFR Medicine-Pharmacy, University of Rouen, 76183 Rouen, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 September 2011 / Revised: 21 October 2011 / Accepted: 31 October 2011 / Published: 14 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Green Chemistry and Sustainable Chemistry 2011)
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Abstract

Quinas contains several compounds, such as quinoline alkaloids, principally quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and cichonidine. Identified from barks of Cinchona, quinine is still commonly used to treat human malaria. Microwave-Integrated Extraction and Leaching (MIEL) is proposed for the extraction of quinoline alkaloids from bark of Cinchona succirubra. The process is performed in four steps, which ensures complete, rapid and accurate extraction of the samples. Optimal conditions for extraction were obtained using a response surface methodology reached from a central composite design. The MIEL extraction has been compared with a conventional technique soxhlet extraction. The extracts of quinoline alkaloids from C. succirubra obtained by these two different methods were compared by HPLC. The extracts obtained by MIEL in 32 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (quinine, quinidine, cinchonine, cinchonidine) similar to those obtained by conventional Soxhlet extraction in 3 hours. MIEL is a green technology that serves as a good alternative for the extraction of Cinchona alkaloids.
Keywords: Cinchona alkaloids; Soxhlet; microwave; extraction; HPLC Cinchona alkaloids; Soxhlet; microwave; extraction; HPLC
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fabiano-Tixier, A.-S.; Elomri, A.; Blanckaert, A.; Seguin, E.; Petitcolas, E.; Chemat, F. Rapid and Green Analytical Method for the Determination of Quinoline Alkaloids from Cinchona succirubra Based on Microwave-Integrated Extraction and Leaching (MIEL) Prior to High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 7846-7860.

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