Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 7785-7805; doi:10.3390/ijms12117785
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Green Aspects of Techniques for the Determination of Currently Used Pesticides in Environmental Samples

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza Street 11/12, Gdansk 80-233, Poland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 August 2011; in revised form: 25 October 2011 / Accepted: 4 November 2011 / Published: 10 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Green Chemistry and Sustainable Chemistry 2011)
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Abstract: Pesticides are among the most dangerous environmental pollutants because of their stability, mobility and long-term effects on living organisms. Their presence in the environment is a particular danger. It is therefore crucial to monitor pesticide residues using all available analytical methods. The analysis of environmental samples for the presence of pesticides is very difficult: the processes involved in sample preparation are labor-intensive and time-consuming. To date, it has been standard practice to use large quantities of organic solvents in the sample preparation process; but as these solvents are themselves hazardous, solvent-less and solvent-minimized techniques are becoming popular. The application of Green Chemistry principles to sample preparation is primarily leading to the miniaturization of procedures and the use of solvent-less techniques, and these are discussed in the paper.
Keywords: pesticides; environment; sustainable development; sample preparation; green analytical chemistry

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MDPI and ACS Style

Stocka, J.; Tankiewicz, M.; Biziuk, M.; Namieśnik, J. Green Aspects of Techniques for the Determination of Currently Used Pesticides in Environmental Samples. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 7785-7805.

AMA Style

Stocka J, Tankiewicz M, Biziuk M, Namieśnik J. Green Aspects of Techniques for the Determination of Currently Used Pesticides in Environmental Samples. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(11):7785-7805.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stocka, Jolanta; Tankiewicz, Maciej; Biziuk, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek. 2011. "Green Aspects of Techniques for the Determination of Currently Used Pesticides in Environmental Samples." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 11: 7785-7805.

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