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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 7785-7805; doi:10.3390/ijms12117785
Review

Green Aspects of Techniques for the Determination of Currently Used Pesticides in Environmental Samples

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Received: 30 August 2011; in revised form: 25 October 2011 / Accepted: 4 November 2011 / Published: 10 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Green Chemistry and Sustainable Chemistry 2011)
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Abstract: Pesticides are among the most dangerous environmental pollutants because of their stability, mobility and long-term effects on living organisms. Their presence in the environment is a particular danger. It is therefore crucial to monitor pesticide residues using all available analytical methods. The analysis of environmental samples for the presence of pesticides is very difficult: the processes involved in sample preparation are labor-intensive and time-consuming. To date, it has been standard practice to use large quantities of organic solvents in the sample preparation process; but as these solvents are themselves hazardous, solvent-less and solvent-minimized techniques are becoming popular. The application of Green Chemistry principles to sample preparation is primarily leading to the miniaturization of procedures and the use of solvent-less techniques, and these are discussed in the paper.
Keywords: pesticides; environment; sustainable development; sample preparation; green analytical chemistry pesticides; environment; sustainable development; sample preparation; green analytical chemistry
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Stocka, J.; Tankiewicz, M.; Biziuk, M.; Namieśnik, J. Green Aspects of Techniques for the Determination of Currently Used Pesticides in Environmental Samples. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 7785-7805.

AMA Style

Stocka J, Tankiewicz M, Biziuk M, Namieśnik J. Green Aspects of Techniques for the Determination of Currently Used Pesticides in Environmental Samples. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(11):7785-7805.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stocka, Jolanta; Tankiewicz, Maciej; Biziuk, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek. 2011. "Green Aspects of Techniques for the Determination of Currently Used Pesticides in Environmental Samples." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 11: 7785-7805.



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