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Effects of the Molecular Weight and the Degree of Deacetylation of Chitosan Oligosaccharides on Antitumor Activity
Department of Biotechnology, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do 420-743, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 November 2010; in revised form: 3 January 2011 / Accepted: 4 January 2011 / Published: 6 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins
Abstract: Effects of the degree of deacetylation (DDA) and the molecular mass of chitosan oligosaccharides (CTS-OS), obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of high molecular weight chitosan (HMWC), on antitumor activity was explored. The DDA and molecular weights of CTS-OS were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. The CTS-OS were found to be a mixture of mainly dimers (18.8%), trimers (24.8%), tetramers (24.9%), pentamers (17.7%), hexamers (7.1%), heptamers (3.3%), and octamers (3.4%). The CTS-OS were further fractionated by gel-filtration chromatography into two major fractions: (1) COS, consisting of glucosamine (GlcN)n, n = 3–5 with DDA 100%; and (2) HOS, consisting of (GlcN)5 as the minimum residues and varying number of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)n, n = 1–2 with DDA about 87.5% in random order. The cytotoxicities, expressed as the concentration needed for 50% cell death (CC50), of CTS-OS, COS, and HOS against PC3 (prostate cancer cell), A549 (lung cancer cell), and HepG2 (hepatoma cell), were determined to be 25 mg∙mL-1, 25 mg∙mL-1, and 50 mg∙mL-1, respectively. The HMWC was approximately 50% less effective than both CTS-OS and COS. These results demonstrate that the molecular weight and DDA of chitosan oligosaccharides are important factors for suppressing cancer cell growth.
Keywords: chitosan oligosaccharides; antitumor activity; MALDI-TOF MS; molecular weight; degree of deacetylation
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Park, J.K.; Chung, M.J.; Choi, H.N.; Park, Y.I. Effects of the Molecular Weight and the Degree of Deacetylation of Chitosan Oligosaccharides on Antitumor Activity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 266-277.
Park JK, Chung MJ, Choi HN, Park YI. Effects of the Molecular Weight and the Degree of Deacetylation of Chitosan Oligosaccharides on Antitumor Activity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(1):266-277.
Park, Jae Kweon; Chung, Mi Ja; Choi, Ha Na; Park, Yong Il. 2011. "Effects of the Molecular Weight and the Degree of Deacetylation of Chitosan Oligosaccharides on Antitumor Activity." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 1: 266-277.