Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(9), 3349-3356; doi:10.3390/ijms11093349

Microbial Contamination of Orthodontic Buccal Tubes from Manufacturers

1email, 2email, 2email, 2email and 2,* email
Received: 25 July 2010; in revised form: 19 August 2010 / Accepted: 10 September 2010 / Published: 16 September 2010
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: This study aimed to test the sterility of new unused orthodontic buccal tubes received from manufacturers. Four different types of buccal tubes were used straight from the manufactures package without any additional sterilizing step. Of these buccal tubes tested, three genera of bacteria, implicated as opportunistic pathogens, namely Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were recovered from these buccal tubes. Our data showing microbial contamination on buccal tubes highlights the need of sterilization before clinical use. We also suggest that manufacturers should list the sterility state of orthodontic buccal tubes on their packaging or instructions stating the need for sterilization.
Keywords: Acinetobacter calcoaceticus; Micrococcus luteus; oral cavity; orthodontic buccal tubes; Staphylococcus haemolyticus; sterilization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Purmal, K.; Chin, S.; Pinto, J.; Yin, W.-F.; Chan, K.-G. Microbial Contamination of Orthodontic Buccal Tubes from Manufacturers. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 3349-3356.

AMA Style

Purmal K, Chin S, Pinto J, Yin W-F, Chan K-G. Microbial Contamination of Orthodontic Buccal Tubes from Manufacturers. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2010; 11(9):3349-3356.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Purmal, Kathiravan; Chin, Shenyang; Pinto, John; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan. 2010. "Microbial Contamination of Orthodontic Buccal Tubes from Manufacturers." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11, no. 9: 3349-3356.

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