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Nitric Oxide: Perspectives and Emerging Studies of a Well Known Cytotoxin
Center for Molecular Biology of Oral Diseases, College of Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
Department of Jesse Brown, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Charles A. Sammons Cancer Center and Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75246, USA
Department of Otolaryngology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 May 2010; in revised form: 17 June 2010 / Accepted: 13 July 2010 / Published: 16 July 2010
Abstract: The free radical nitric oxide (NO●) is known to play a dual role in human physiology and pathophysiology. At low levels, NO● can protect cells; however, at higher levels, NO● is a known cytotoxin, having been implicated in tumor angiogenesis and progression. While the majority of research devoted to understanding the role of NO● in cancer has to date been tissue-specific, we herein review underlying commonalities of NO● which may well exist among tumors arising from a variety of different sites. We also discuss the role of NO● in human physiology and pathophysiology, including the very important relationship between NO● and the glutathione-transferases, a class of protective enzymes involved in cellular protection. The emerging role of NO● in three main areas of epigenetics—DNA methylation, microRNAs, and histone modifications—is then discussed. Finally, we describe the recent development of a model cell line system in which human tumor cell lines were adapted to high NO● (HNO) levels. We anticipate that these HNO cell lines will serve as a useful tool in the ongoing efforts to better understand the role of NO● in cancer.
Keywords: nitric oxide; epigenetics; cytotoxicity; high NO adaptation; oncogenetic
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MDPI and ACS Style
Paradise, W.A.; Vesper, B.J.; Goel, A.; Waltonen, J.D.; Altman, K.W.; Haines, G.K., III; Radosevich, J.A. Nitric Oxide: Perspectives and Emerging Studies of a Well Known Cytotoxin. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 2715-2745.
Paradise WA, Vesper BJ, Goel A, Waltonen JD, Altman KW, Haines GK, III, Radosevich JA. Nitric Oxide: Perspectives and Emerging Studies of a Well Known Cytotoxin. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2010; 11(7):2715-2745.
Paradise, William A.; Vesper, Benjamin J.; Goel, Ajay; Waltonen, Joshua D.; Altman, Kenneth W.; Haines, G. Kenneth, III; Radosevich, James A. 2010. "Nitric Oxide: Perspectives and Emerging Studies of a Well Known Cytotoxin." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11, no. 7: 2715-2745.