Next Article in Journal
Determination of the Thermodegradation of deoxyArbutin in Aqueous Solution by High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Next Article in Special Issue
Carbonic Anhydrase I Is Recognized by an SOD1 Antibody upon Biotinylation of Human Spinal Cord Extracts
Previous Article in Journal
The Effect of Exercise on the Skeletal Muscle Phospholipidome of Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet
Previous Article in Special Issue
Aberrant Crypt Foci: The Case for Inclusion as a Biomarker for Colon Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(10), 3965-3976; doi:10.3390/ijms11103965

Distribution of Endogenous Farnesyl Pyrophosphate and Four Species of Lysophosphatidic Acid in Rodent Brain

1,†, 1,†, 1,2 and 1,3,*
1 The Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University Bloomington, IN 47405, USA 2 The Gill Center for Biomolecular Science, Bloomington IN, 47405, USA 3 The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction, Bloomington IN 47405, USA These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 August 2010 / Revised: 12 October 2010 / Accepted: 13 October 2010 / Published: 15 October 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [247 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures


Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is the umbrella term for lipid signaling molecules that share structural homology and activate the family of LPA receptors. Farnesyl Pyrophosphate (FPP) is commonly known as an intermediate in the synthesis of steroid hormones; however, its function as a signaling lipid is beginning to be explored. FPP was recently shown to an activator of the G-protein coupled receptor 92 (also known as LPA5) of the calcium channel TRPV3. The LPA receptors (including GPR92) are associated with the signal transduction of noxious stimuli, however, very little is known about the distribution of their signaling ligands (LPAs and FPP) in the brain. Here, using HPLC/MS/MS, we developed extraction and analytical methods for measuring levels of FPP and 4 species of LPA (palmitoyl, stearoyl, oleoyl and arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol-3 phosphate) in rodent brain. Relative distributions of each of the five compounds was significantly different across the brain suggesting divergent functionality for each as signaling molecules based on where and how much of each is being produced. Brainstem, midbrain, and thalamus contained the highest levels measured for each compound, though none in the same ratios while relatively small amounts were produced in cortex and cerebellum. These data provide a framework for investigations into functional relationships of these lipid ligands in specific brain areas, many of which are associated with the perception of pain.
Keywords: LPA; FPP; GPR92; TRPV3, LC/MS/MS; pain LPA; FPP; GPR92; TRPV3, LC/MS/MS; pain
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, S.H.; Raboune, S.; Walker, J.M.; Bradshaw, H.B. Distribution of Endogenous Farnesyl Pyrophosphate and Four Species of Lysophosphatidic Acid in Rodent Brain. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 3965-3976.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert