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Accurate Analysis of Tumor Margins Using a Fluorescent pH Low Insertion Peptide (pHLIP)
Physics Department, University of Rhode Island, 2 Lippitt Rd., Kingston, RI 02881, USA
Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, P.O. Box 208114, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
Current address: Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, 593 Eddy Street, Providence, RI 02903, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 July 2009; in revised form: 24 July 2009 / Accepted: 3 August 2009 / Published: 4 August 2009
Abstract: The recurrence of certain cancers remains quite high due to either incomplete surgical removal of the primary tumor or the presence of small metastases that are invisible to the surgeon. Near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging might improve surgical outcomes by providing sensitive, specific, and real-time visualization of normal and diseased tissues if agents can be found that discriminate between normal and diseased tissue and define tumor margins. We have developed a new approach for revealing tumor borders by using NIR fluorescently labeled pH Low Insertion Peptide (pHLIP) and have created a computational program for the quantitative assessment of tumor boundaries. The approach is tested in vivo by co-localization of GFP-tumors and NIR emission from the fluorescently labeled pHLIP, and it is found that boundaries are accurately reported and that sub-millimeter masses can be detected.
Keywords: tumor border; fluorescence-guided surgery; pHLIP; tumor targeting; computational algorithm
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MDPI and ACS Style
Segala, J.; Engelman, D.M.; Reshetnyak, Y.K.; Andreev, O.A. Accurate Analysis of Tumor Margins Using a Fluorescent pH Low Insertion Peptide (pHLIP). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 3478-3487.
Segala J, Engelman DM, Reshetnyak YK, Andreev OA. Accurate Analysis of Tumor Margins Using a Fluorescent pH Low Insertion Peptide (pHLIP). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(8):3478-3487.
Segala, James; Engelman, Donald M.; Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Andreev, Oleg A. 2009. "Accurate Analysis of Tumor Margins Using a Fluorescent pH Low Insertion Peptide (pHLIP)." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 8: 3478-3487.