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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(8), 3478-3487; doi:10.3390/ijms10083478
Article

Accurate Analysis of Tumor Margins Using a Fluorescent pH Low Insertion Peptide (pHLIP)

1,#
, 2
, 1,*  and 1,*
1 Physics Department, University of Rhode Island, 2 Lippitt Rd., Kingston, RI 02881, USA 2 Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, P.O. Box 208114, New Haven, CT 06520, USA # Current address: Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, 593 Eddy Street, Providence, RI 02903, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 July 2009 / Revised: 24 July 2009 / Accepted: 3 August 2009 / Published: 4 August 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms and Molecular Sciences)
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Abstract

The recurrence of certain cancers remains quite high due to either incomplete surgical removal of the primary tumor or the presence of small metastases that are invisible to the surgeon. Near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging might improve surgical outcomes by providing sensitive, specific, and real-time visualization of normal and diseased tissues if agents can be found that discriminate between normal and diseased tissue and define tumor margins. We have developed a new approach for revealing tumor borders by using NIR fluorescently labeled pH Low Insertion Peptide (pHLIP) and have created a computational program for the quantitative assessment of tumor boundaries. The approach is tested in vivo by co-localization of GFP-tumors and NIR emission from the fluorescently labeled pHLIP, and it is found that boundaries are accurately reported and that sub-millimeter masses can be detected.
Keywords: tumor border; fluorescence-guided surgery; pHLIP; tumor targeting; computational algorithm tumor border; fluorescence-guided surgery; pHLIP; tumor targeting; computational algorithm
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Segala, J.; Engelman, D.M.; Reshetnyak, Y.K.; Andreev, O.A. Accurate Analysis of Tumor Margins Using a Fluorescent pH Low Insertion Peptide (pHLIP). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 3478-3487.

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