Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(6), 2611-2632; doi:10.3390/ijms10062611
Review

The Eukaryotic Cell Originated in the Integration and Redistribution of Hyperstructures from Communities of Prokaryotic Cells Based on Molecular Complementarity

Received: 21 April 2009; in revised form: 25 May 2009 / Accepted: 3 June 2009 / Published: 4 June 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Origin of Life)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: In the “ecosystems-first” approach to the origins of life, networks of non-covalent assemblies of molecules (composomes), rather than individual protocells, evolved under the constraints of molecular complementarity. Composomes evolved into the hyperstructures of modern bacteria. We extend the ecosystems-first approach to explain the origin of eukaryotic cells through the integration of mixed populations of bacteria. We suggest that mutualism and symbiosis resulted in cellular mergers entailing the loss of redundant hyperstructures, the uncoupling of transcription and translation, and the emergence of introns and multiple chromosomes. Molecular complementarity also facilitated integration of bacterial hyperstructures to perform cytoskeletal and movement functions.
Keywords: composome; intron; motility; molecular complementarity; hyperstructure; origin of life; evolution; cytoskeleton; mutualism; symbiosis; ecology; ecosystem
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MDPI and ACS Style

Norris, V.; Root-Bernstein, R. The Eukaryotic Cell Originated in the Integration and Redistribution of Hyperstructures from Communities of Prokaryotic Cells Based on Molecular Complementarity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 2611-2632.

AMA Style

Norris V, Root-Bernstein R. The Eukaryotic Cell Originated in the Integration and Redistribution of Hyperstructures from Communities of Prokaryotic Cells Based on Molecular Complementarity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(6):2611-2632.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Norris, Vic; Root-Bernstein, Robert. 2009. "The Eukaryotic Cell Originated in the Integration and Redistribution of Hyperstructures from Communities of Prokaryotic Cells Based on Molecular Complementarity." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 6: 2611-2632.

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