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Antioxidant Activity of a Red Lentil Extract and Its Fractions
Division of Food Science, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima Street 10, 10-474 Olsztyn, Poland
Instituto de Fermentationes Industriales (CSIC), Juan de la Cierva 3, 2800 Madrid, Spain
Grupo de Investigación en Polifenoles, Unidad de Nutrición y Bromatología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Salamanca, 37007-Salamanca, Spain
Department of Food Science and Technology, The University of Georgia, 100 Cedar Street, Athens, GA 30602-7610, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2009; in revised form: 16 December 2009 / Accepted: 17 December 2009 / Published: 23 December 2009
Abstract: Phenolic compounds were extracted from red lentil seeds using 80% (v/v) aqueous acetone. The crude extract was applied to a Sephadex LH-20 column. Fraction 1, consisting of sugars and low-molecular-weight phenolics, was eluted from the column by ethanol. Fraction 2, consisting of tannins, was obtained using acetone-water (1:1; v/v) as the mobile phase. Phenolic compounds present in the crude extract and its fractions demonstrated antioxidant and antiradical activities as revealed from studies using a β-carotene-linoleate model system, the total antioxidant activity (TAA) method, the DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, and a reducing power evaluation. Results of these assays showed the highest values when tannins (fraction 2) were tested. For instance, the TAA of the tannin fraction was 5.85 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, whereas the crude extract and fraction 1 showed 0.68 and 0.33 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, respectively. The content of total phenolics in fraction 2 was the highest (290 mg/g); the tannin content, determined using the vanillin method and expressed as absorbance units at 500 nm per 1 g, was 129. There were 24 compounds identified in the crude extract using an HPLC-ESI-MS method: quercetin diglycoside, catechin, digallate procyanidin, and p-hydroxybenzoic were the dominant phenolics in the extract.
Keywords: free radicals; red lentils; phenolic compounds; tannins; HPLC-ESI-MS
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Amarowicz, R.; Estrella, I.; Hernández, T.; Dueñas, M.; Troszyńska, A.; Kosińska, A.; Pegg, R.B. Antioxidant Activity of a Red Lentil Extract and Its Fractions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 5513-5527.
Amarowicz R, Estrella I, Hernández T, Dueñas M, Troszyńska A, Kosińska A, Pegg RB. Antioxidant Activity of a Red Lentil Extract and Its Fractions. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(12):5513-5527.
Amarowicz, Ryszard; Estrella, Isabell; Hernández, Teresa; Dueñas, Montserrat; Troszyńska, Agnieszka; Kosińska, Agnieszka; Pegg, Ronald B. 2009. "Antioxidant Activity of a Red Lentil Extract and Its Fractions." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 12: 5513-5527.